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Gibbons v. Ogden

(1944)

Supreme Court of the United States - 22 U.S. 1

tl;dr:

Congress may regulate all commercial activities occurring between states, BUT the completely internal commerce of a state is considered as reserved for the state itself.

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ICRAIssue, Conclusion, Rule, Analysis for Gibbons v. Ogden

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Facts & HoldingGibbons v. Ogden case brief facts & holding

Facts:Ogden received a license under NY state law which gave...

Holding:What does the word commerce mean? Traffic, intercourse, navigation, & commodities...

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Gibbons v. Ogden | Case Brief DeepDive
Majority opinion, author: Mr. Justice Black
Level 1
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In the case of Ashcraft and Ware, who were found guilty of murder, the Supreme Court decided that Ashcraft's confession was coerced and violated his Fourteenth Amendment rights. The Court examined the circumstances surrounding the alleged confession and determined that Ashcraft was held for 36 hours without rest or sleep and continuously cross-examined by prosecutors, which was inherently coercive and a violation of his Constitutional rights. The Court emphasized that the Constitution prohibits the use of coerced confessions to convict individuals in American courts.

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Dissenting opinion, author: Mr. Justice Jackson
Level 1
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Justice Jackson's dissenting opinion argues that the Supreme Court's ruling in this case undermines the presumption of regularity and legality previously afforded to the state in obtaining convictions through confessions made by individuals in custody. The Court has overstepped its bounds by disregarding the findings of the lower courts and replacing a verdict based on conflicting evidence with an unchallengeable presumption of coercion. The State has a responsibility to protect society from crimes, and the Court's decision to exclude confessions based on an irrebuttable presumption that custody and examination are inherently coercive if of some unspecified duration within thirty-six hours goes beyond the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Constitution does not prohibit a State from using a confession obtained from a suspect in custody, as long as the suspect had a free choice to admit, deny, or refuse to answer. However, forced confessions are not admissible because they violate fundamental fairness, and protection against torture, physical or mental, is necessary. The Court's decision to return the companion case of Ware to the Supreme Court of Tennessee for reconsideration in light of the ruling on Ashcraft highlights the need for clear and defined constitutional standards for the admissibility of confessions.

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