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Briefs

Case name tl;dr
Pennoyer v. Neff
Pilea
Pennoyer sues non-resident of state who owns property in the forum state.
International Shoe Co. v. State of WA
Pilea
A company serving multiple states had salespeople operating in one state. The state was able to exercise jurisdiction over the company, because the presence of the salespeople counted as sufficient minimum contacts of the company with the state.
World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson
Pilea
The personal Jurisdiction minimum contacts test over a non-resident defendant is re-defined to require reasonable foreseeability of being subject to suit in a state.
Asahi Metal Indus. Co. v. Superior Court of Cal
Pilea
An alien defendant trying to sue another foreign defendant in a US state may not do so if the burden on the defendant will outweigh other factors, so as to make the exercise of personal jurisdiction incompatible with justice.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court of CA
Pilea
Litigation must arise out of or relate to the defendant's forum state conduct for the state to validly assert specific personal jurisdiction.
Calder v. Jones
Pilea
A libelous article intentionally directed towards a CA actress allows CA to exercise personal jurisdiction over the non-resident article writers.
Yates v. United States
LegalWriter
A fish does not fall under the term "tangible object" used in Section 1519 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. "Tangible object" in that section of the Act only includes objects used to record or preserve information.
Tennessee Valley Auth. v. Hill
LegalWriter
Dam construction was stopped due to violating the Endangered Species Act, which didn't exist when dam construction began
Ford Motor Co. v. Montana Eighth Judicial District Court
Pilea
Ford manufactured two cars with auto defects which caused severe injuries in different states from the state the cars were sold in. Because Ford had substantial contacts with those states, they are subject to jurisdiction in those states.
Rao v. Era Alaska Airlines
Pilea
An airline company operating out of a single state, who negligently lost a case of jewelry, could not be sued in a separate state even though they sold airlines tickets over the Internet to a customer located there.
Shaffer v. Heitner
Pilea
A state may not exercise personal jurisdiction over company officers on the basis of their personal property (stocks in their company) being located in the forum state, absent additional minimum contacts with the state.
Burnham v. Superior Court
Pilea
A man who is served with divorce while briefly physically present in a state renders himself subject to the jurisdiction of the state.
In re Arbitration between Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co.
Lan
Defendant dropped a plank of wood which caused a fire that burned down Plaintiff's ship. Court determines that there was proximate cause.
Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A. v. Brown
Pilea
A bus crashed in France due to product defects, and killed two young boys. Their parents sued the bus production companies in North Carolina. NC could not exercise jurisdiction over all of the companies, as they were all foreign-based.
Daimler AG v. Bauman
Pilea
A foreign defendant being sued by a foreign plaintiff over foreign conduct, may not be subject to general jurisdiction by a US state.
BNSF Railway Co. v. Tyrell
Pilea
Railroad employees who were injured by their employer may not sue in a state in which the railroad does not meet the standard for general jurisdiction of systematic and continuous contacts.
Piper Aircraft Co. v. Reyno
Pilea
An airplane crash which occurred in Scotland may be dismissed from a US forum on the basis of forum non conveniens.
Bailey v. West
Jawshu
The defendant bought a lame horse; the horse was left with a farm owner who cared for the horse for four years and said the defendant was liable for costs. The defendant was not held liable because he did not form an implied contract with the farm owner.
Wolf v. Marlton Corp.
Jawshu
A couple wanted to get out of a contract for a new home, so they threatened the builder that they would sell the home to an undesirable purchaser if they were forced to go through with it. The builder was able to argue that the threat constituted duress.
Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v. Mort's Dock and Engineering Co, Ltd (a.k.a. Wagon Mound No. 1)
Lan
Plaintiff's wharf was damaged due to a fire on the water caused by Defendant's oil spill. Court finds lack of proximate cause because the fire on the water was not reasonably foreseeable.
Spiess v. Brandt
Jawshu
The plaintiffs bought a resort from the defendants, relying upon the defendants’ claim that the resort was profitable. The resort was not profitable, and the defendants were found to have made a fraudulent misrepresentation.
Danann Realty Corp. v. Harris
Jawshu
The plaintiff claimed they were induced into a contract with the defendants through oral misrepresentations. The defendants were not held liable for fraud because the contract explicitly stated that neither party relied on any outside representations.
Obde v. Schlemeyer
Jawshu
A couple bought a home with a substantial termite infestation which the sellers neglected to mention prior to the sale, despite their knowledge of it. The sellers were required to pay damages for their fraudulent non-disclosure.
Reed v. King
Jawshu
The defendant sold a home to the plaintiff without telling her that a woman and her four children were murdered there. The court held that, if the defendant knew the fact affected the home’s market value, he should have informed the plaintiff.
Jacob & Youngs, Inc. v. Kent
Jawshu
A general contractor used the wrong brand of pipe when building a home. The difference was insignificant, so they didn’t need to replace it.
Stees v. Leonard
Jawshu
A builder had trouble completing a building according to contract specifications because the soil underneath turned out to be quicksand. The builder was still obligated to perform.
Taylor v. Caldwell
Jawshu
The plaintiff rented out the defendant’s music venue for a concert series, but the venue burned down before the first concert. Both parties were excused from their obligations under the contract.
Freund v. Washington Square Press
Jawshu
A publisher breached a contract to publish an author’s manuscript. The author was not entitled to the cost of publication as damages.
Van Wagner Advertising Corp. v. S & M Enterprises
Jawshu
A building owner improperly canceled a lease with the plaintiff. The court ordered the owner to pay damages instead of carrying out the contract.
Hadley v. Baxendale
Jawshu
A miller sent in a crank shaft for replacement and was told by the shipper that it would be delivered the next day. The shipper’s delay caused lost profits to the miller, but the shipper was not held liable for lost profits.
Courteen Seed Co. v. Abraham
Jawshu
A grain dealer solicited business from a seed company, but then refused to sell to them. The court ruled that there was no contract because the grain dealer’s solicitation was not an offer.
Fairmount Glass Works v. Crunden-Martin Woodenware Co.
Jawshu
A glass manufacturer refused to fulfill an order for Mason jars. The manufacturer was held liable because the price quote they sent, inviting the buyer’s acceptance, was a binding offer to sell.
Ionics, Inc. v. Elmwood Sensors
Jawshu
A buyer’s offer form and a seller’s acceptance form included directly contradictory terms. The court held that only the mutually agreed upon terms were part of the contract, with the terms in dispute reverting to default terms provided by the UCC.
McIntosh v. Murphy
Jawshu
A car salesman was fired after two and a half months despite an oral employment contract to last more than a year. Though the statute of frauds limits oral contracts to a year, the contract was enforceable because the salesman relied so heavily on it.
Coley v. Lang
Jawshu
A buyer and a seller came to a preliminary agreement, but the buyer backed out before it was finalized. The seller’s suit for reliance damages was denied because his reliance on the promise wasn’t substantial enough.
Monetti v. Anchor Hocking Corp.
Jawshu
A company agreed to become the distributor for another company, but then breached. Even though they did not sign a contract, they were held liable because they had signed other written proof of the agreement.
Columbia Nitrogen Corp. v. Royster Co.
Jawshu
A company bought less than a tenth of the minimum quantity of a product they agreed to buy. The court admitted evidence showing that the parties’ course of dealing and common industry practices made the company’s behavior consistent with the contract.
Southern Concrete Services, Inc. v. Mableton Contractors, Inc.
Jawshu
A company failed to buy the amount of concrete specified in their contract. The court refused to admit evidence of industry customs and additional terms because it contradicted the express terms of the agreement.
Eastern Air Lines, Inc. v. Gulf Oil Corp.
Jawshu
In a lawsuit, a defendant oil company accused the plaintiff airline of violating their requirements contract by manipulating their requirements. Because the airline was engaging in a common commercial practice, their behavior was not a violation.
Empire Gas Corp. v. American Bakeries Co.
Jawshu
A company agreed in a requirements contract to buy approximately 3,000 propane converters, but instead bought none. Their decision was a breach because they didn’t give a reason for their change of mind, so it couldn’t meet the “good faith” requirement.
Aluminum Co. of America v. Essex Group, Inc.
Jawshu
A price index stipulated in a contract turned out to be an inaccurate measure of one party’s actual production costs. The court allowed the parties to modify the contract based on the doctrine of mutual mistake.
Wood v. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon
Jawshu
A tastemaker granted the plaintiff exclusive authority to lend her endorsement to clothing designs, but then made endorsements without his knowledge. Their contract was enforceable because, although he made no explicit promise, one was fairly implied.
Bloor v. Falstaff Brewing Corp.
Jawshu
A brewery bought a failing brewery’s label and promised to promote its sales and give royalties, but instead sales substantially decreased. The acquiring brewery breached the contract because it did not use its best efforts to promote the brand.
Trimmer v. Van Bomel
Jawshu
A man grew accustomed to a lavish lifestyle funded by a wealthy benefactress and sued for $1.5 million after their relationship ended. The agreement alleged by the man was too indefinite to be enforceable.
Wagner Excello Foods, Inc. v. Fearn Int’l, Inc.
Jawshu
A party to a contract for sale argued that the contract was unenforceable because it lacked an express price term. The court held that the contract may still be enforceable if the parties intended to enter an agreement without settling on a price.
Kirksey v. Kirksey
Jawshu
A man offered his sister-in-law a house but then kicked her out after two years. There was no enforceable contract because the man’s promise was gratuitous.
In Re Greene
Jawshu
A woman sought to enforce a contract which entitled her to hundreds of thousands of dollars in exchange for only vague and nominal consideration from her. The contract was unenforceable for lack of consideration.
Wolford v. Powers
Jawshu
An old man executed a contract to provide for the education and welfare of a child in exchange for the child being named after him. The court held that this was valid consideration to support a contract.
Alaska Packers’ Ass'n v. Domenico
Jawshu
A group of sailors agreed to go to Alaska and fish for a set price, but then demanded a higher price once they got there. The higher price was not enforceable because the sailors did not offer additional consideration.
Haase v. Cardoza
Jawshu
A man asked his wife to leave $10,000 to his sister upon his death, but his wife withheld the money for more than a year. Though the wife ultimately offered to pay money, the sister was not able to recover the balance because no consideration was given.
Ricketts v. Scothorn
Jawshu
A man promised his granddaughter $2,000. Even though there was no consideration, the promise was enforceable because the granddaughter quit her job in reliance on it.
Feinberg v. Pfeiffer Co.
Jawshu
A woman was promised $200 a month in retirement by her employer, but after a few years of retirement the checks were reduced to $100. Despite the lack of consideration, the employer’s promise was enforceable because of her detrimental reliance.
Hayes v. Plantations Steel Co.
Jawshu
An employer promised to pay a longtime employee in retirement, but reneged after the employer fell under new ownership. The promise was not enforceable because there was no consideration or reliance.
United States v. Fleming
ErieAndSpooky
Fleming drives drunkenly and recklessly, crashing and killing a woman. Court finds guilty of murder because driving was more reckless than manslaughter.
State v. Canola
ErieAndSpooky
Armed robbery results in death of victim and robber. Co-felon not liable for felony murder of robber because of agency rule
Morris Lefkowitz v. Great Minneapolis Surplus Store
Okapi13
Advertisements with definite terms are offers which cannot be unexpectedly modified to prevent acceptance.
John Leonard v. Pepsico, Inc.
Okapi13
An advertised offer that is obviously a joke to any reasonable person cannot be the basis for a contract.
R.L. Ammons v. Wilson & Co.
Okapi13
Silence may be interpreted as acceptance based on parties' prior course of dealing.
S. Allen Schreiber v. Olan Mills
Okapi13
Sending a cease and desist letter to a telemarketer does not constitute an offer which can form the basis of a contract.
Textile Unlimited, Inc. v. A..BMH and Company, Inc.
Okapi13
Yarn sale gets twisted in knots by the addition of an arbitration clause not agreed to, but, under UCC § 2-207(3), conduct still forms a contract.
William Klocek v. Gateway
Okapi13
Computer delivery arrived with terms for arbitration which do not make it into the contract.
Christopher Specht v. Netscape Communications Corporation
Okapi13
A hidden software "browsewrap" agreement does not place a downloader on notice as to additional terms.
Frank Dixon v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.
Okapi13
Reliance on a bank's promise to negotiate a loan, and not foreclose, is enforceable under promissory estoppel.
Larry Bowling v. Max Sperry
Okapi13
Don't sell a car to a kid as they likely retain the right to void your contract at will.
Heights Realty, Ltd. v. E.A. Phillips
Okapi13
An elderly woman's agreement to sell her home is unenforceable due to her mental incapacity.
Jacqueline Ervin v. Hosanna Ministry, Inc.
Okapi13
Signing a rehab center's waiver disclaiming their tort liability while intoxicated may render that contract voidable.
Joan Sullivan v. Merval Porter, Jr.
Okapi13
Partial performance of an oral agreement to buy land, induced by seller's misrepresentations, overcomes the statute of frauds' writing requirement.
DF Activities Corp. v. Dorothea F. Brown
Okapi13
Denying the existence of an oral contract to sell a Frank Lloyd Wright chair is sufficient to raise a statute of frauds defense.
T.C. Sherwood v. Hiram Walker
Okapi13
Mutual mistake as to the breedability of a heifer renders a contract void.
Lenawee County Board of Health v. William and Martha Messerly
Okapi13
Buyer beware that even a mutual mistake as to the income-generating potential of a rental property may not result in rescission if you as
Peter Laidlaw v. Hector M. Organ
Okapi13
Buyer does not have a duty to disclose that the War of 1812 has ended.
Audrey E. Vokes v. Arthur Murray, Inc.
Okapi13
Misleading a dance student about their abilities leads to a cause of action for misrepresentation.
Austin Instrument, Inc. v. Loral Corp.
Okapi13
Threatening your partner's business by withholding goods until they agree to your demands may render your contract voidable.
John W. Sinnar v. Harry K. Le Roy
Okapi13
A contract for a bribe to secure a liquor license is unenforceable on on public policy and illegality grounds.
Data Management, Inc. v. James H. Greene
Okapi13
An overly-broad non-compete clause is unenforceable as written and stricken from employment contract.
Peter Wallis v. Kellie Rae Smith
Okapi13
Public policy interests in encouraging child support outweigh a claim of “contraceptive fraud” from a father against a mother who stopped taking birth control.
Joseph A. Billman v. James F. Hensel
Okapi13
Failure to seek financing for a home in good faith constitutes a breach of a real estate contract.
Elmer Hillesland v. Federal Land Bank Association of Grand Forks
Okapi13
There is no general duty to engage in good faith when determining whether to fire an at-will employee.
David Rogath v. Werner E.R. Siebenmann
Okapi13
Violation of an express warranty as to the authenticity of a painting is only actionable if the buyer relied on that warranty as a basis of
Forrest D. Ferguson v. Phoenix Assurance Company of New York
Okapi13
An evidentiary, not substantive, condition precedent for an insurance contract may be excused to allow for payout on a valid claim.
Taylor v. Caldwell
Okapi13
A concert hall burning to the ground relieves the hall's owner of bearing any cost associated with a contract for the hall's rental.
Krell v. Henry
Okapi13
A contract to rent an apartment to watch the King's coronation is unenforceable once the coronation is canceled, frustrating the purpose of the contract.
Albert Hochster v. Edgar De La Tour
Okapi13
Repudiation of a contract to hire a tour guide allows the guide to sue before the would-be date of performance, because anticipatory breach exists now.
H.B. Taylor v. Elizabeth Johnston
Okapi13
Rejecting a repudiation for a horse breeding contract means that a contract is still in effect until performance has been rendered impossible.
Hydraform Products Corp. v. American Steel & Aluminum Corp.
Okapi13
Lost profits from sale must be certain, not speculative, to serve as a basis for consequential damages.
Jerry Locks v. Gerald Wade
Okapi13
Lessor is only entitled to lost volume profits if they suffered an actual loss in profits due to lessee's breach on jukebox contract.
Reliance Cooperage Corp. v. Treat
Okapi13
An offer by a seller to repudiate is rejected, so the buyer is awarded damages per the price on the date of actual, not anticipated, breach.
Willie Peevyhouse v. Garland Coal & Mining Company
Okapi13
Where the cost of performance far "outstrips" any diminution in value, use the latter to determine damages.
Elliot Kaplan and Jeanne Kaplan v. Mayo Clinic
Okapi13
A hospital's breach of a contract to perform a biopsy, resulting in an unnecessary surgery, does not open them up to liability for pain and suffering.
David Plotnik et al. v. John Meihaus et al.
Okapi13
Breaching a contract to not harass a neighbor allows for an award of emotional distress damages.
Angelo Acquista v. New York Life Insurance Company
Okapi13
Insurance company breaching in bad faith opens them up to punitive damages.
Curtice Brothers Co. v. Catts
Okapi13
A cannery needs a shipment of tomatoes and gets an order for specific performance of their contract to buy tomatoes because there is no other equitable remedy available.
Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball
ALAB
A company’s advertisement included a promise to give customers a reward if the product was ineffective. This ad was an offer to form a contract, and users who didn’t receive the promised results are entitled to the reward.
Isaac Kirksey v. Angelico Kirksey
Okapi13
A widow can be forced off the land she has occupied if the promise of hosting her there was not supported by sufficient consideration.
Lucy v. Zehmer
UnreasonableWoman
Two dudes at a bar (Lucy and Zehmer) wrote up an agreement on a restaurant check, but Zehmer then claimed that he signed the agreement as a joke. But it was a valid and enforceable contract because Zehmer's outward actions signaled intent to be bound.
Embry v. Hargadine, McKittrick Dry Goods Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Employee thinks that his contract was renewed based on a convo with the company president, but the company fires him a few weeks later.
Interstate Industries, Inc. v. Barclay Industries, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
After sending a price quote, a company is unable to fulfill a purchase order, and the customer (another company) sues, claiming that the price quote was an offer such that the purchase order was an acceptance.
Nordyne, Inc. v. International Controls & Measurements Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Where a price quote was tailored to a particular buyer and was the result of back-and-forth communications, it constituted an offer.
Craft v. Elder & Johnston Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A company advertised a sale on sewing machines in the newspaper but refused to fulfill Plaintiff's order. Because its advertisement was not an offer, the company didn't have to fulfill the order.
Lefkowitz v. Great Minneapolis Surplus Store, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Store refuses to sell a fur coat to customer for $1, even though the store advertised that it would sell fur coats for $1 on a "first come, first served basis." The customer was the first to arrive to the store.
Leonard v. PepsiCo
UnreasonableWoman
A commercial showing a Harrier Jet as a potential reward for drinking soda was clearly a joke and didn't constitute an offer.
Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A company posted an advertisement claiming that using its product would protect users from catching the flu. Then, a woman used the product and got sick with the flu.
Consolidated Freightways Corp. of Delaware v. Williams
UnreasonableWoman
A company posted a $5,000 reward for info about someone who had been stealing from them. A supervisor at the company provided the requested info, but the company refused to give him the reward.
Glover v. Jewish War Veterans of the USA, Post No. 58
UnreasonableWoman
A woman unknowingly gives police info for which there is a reward. Once she finds out about the reward, she tries to claim it, but the offeror refuses to pay up.
Dickinson v. Dodds
UnreasonableWoman
A seller gave the buyer a note stating that his offer to sell the buyer his home would stay open until Friday morning, but then the seller sold the home to someone else before the buyer's window to accept ran out.
Drennan v. Star Paving Company
UnreasonableWoman
A general contractor ("GC") relied on a subcontractor's ("SC") bid when bidding for a project. The GC won the contract for the project, but the SC withdrew its offer because it couldn't do the job for the price it listed in the bid.
Corbin-Dykes Electric Co. v. Burr
UnreasonableWoman
A general contractor received bids from a subcontractor on two occasions, but rejected the bids both times. The subcontractor sued.
Ever-Tite Roofing v. Green
UnreasonableWoman
Homeowners asked a roofing company to do work on their roof. But when the roofing company arrived at the home with all their equipment at the ready, they found out that the homeowners hired someone else to do the job.
Morrison v. Thoelke
UnreasonableWoman
Sellers signed a contract agreeing to sell their home to the buyers and sent it to the buyers by mail. But before the buyers received the contracts, the sellers called the buyers and said they had changed their minds.
Joseph Martin, Jr., Delicatessen v. Schumacher
UnreasonableWoman
Landlord and tenant agreed that the tenant could renew their lease, but stated that the rental terms were "to be agreed upon." When the tenant tried to renew their lease, the landlord asked for rent way above what an appraiser thought it should be.
Empro Manufacturing Co. v. Ball-Co Manufacturing, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Two companies signed a letter of intent (LOI) with general terms but also predicted further negotiations. Those negotiations fell through and one of the companies started negotiating with someone else.
Butler v. Balolia
UnreasonableWoman
An inventor and a company signed a letter of intent (LOI) to negotiate using their best efforts on a purchase agreement. The transaction fell through and the inventor accused the company of making up "specious" reasons to make negotiations fail.
New England Insulation Co. v. General Dynamics Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
General contractor promised that bids submitted would be kept locked away, but then showed a subcontractor's bid (containing confidential info) to another company and then gave the contract to that same company.
Healy v. NY Central & Hudson River R.R. Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A guy checked a bag in a parcel room and got a tag to present upon retrieving the bag. On the back of the tag, it said that the parcel room wasn't liable for damage exceeding $10. The guy never read this warning. The parcel room lost his bag.
Specht v. Netscape Communications Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiffs downloaded software that invited users to read the terms and conditions. Users, however, could only see this invite if they scrolled down of their own volition. Plaintiffs did not scroll down. The agreement had an arbitration clause.
Hill v. Gateway 2000, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiffs bought a computer for delivery. When the computer arrived, they saw that there were additional terms and conditions in the box. They said that buyers agreed if they didn't return the computer in 30 days. Plaintiffs didn't return the computer.
Armendariz v. Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Employees signed unilateral arbitration clauses as part of their employment agreements.
​​Frost v. ADT, LLC
UnreasonableWoman
An ADT customer died in a fire at home and ADT did not dispatch emergency responders.
O’Callaghan v. Waller & Beckwith Realty Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Tenant hurt herself when she walked on her landlord's defective pavement, but she had signed an exculpatory clause as part of her lease agreement.
Tunkl v. Regents of the University of California
UnreasonableWoman
A research hospital had its patient sign an exculpatory agreement before receiving treatment.
Hamer v. Sidway
UnreasonableWoman
An uncle promised his nephew $5,000 if he nephew refrained from drinking, using tobacco, swearing, and playing cards or billiards for money until he turned 21. The nephew complied.
Langer v. Superior Steel Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
A company promised to pay a retiring employee $100 for the rest of his life as long as he agreed not to work for a competitor, but the company stopped paying after 4 years.
In re Greene
UnreasonableWoman
After a man ended an extramarital affair, he entered into an agreement with his ex-mistress in which he furnished rent, life insurance payments, etc. and her consideration was $1 “and other good and valuable consideration.”
Mills v. Wyman
UnreasonableWoman
A father found out that a stranger provided his son with shelter and comfort after his son fell ill. The son ultimately died, but the father promised to pay the stranger for the expenses he incurred caring for his son. But the father never sent payment.
Levine v. Blumenthal
UnreasonableWoman
A landlord and tenants entered into a lease agreement, but halfway through the tenants asked to pay less because of economic hardship. The landlord later sued them for unpaid rent.
Alaska Packers’ Ass’n v. Domenico
UnreasonableWoman
Some dudes agreed to work on a ship in Alaska, but once they arrived, they demanded more for their services from the shipowners. The shipowners had no choice but to agree, but once they got back from Alaska, they refused to pay.
Kirksey v. Kirksey
UnreasonableWoman
A guy invited his recently-widowed sister-in-law to move onto his land. She left all of her possessions behind and moved, but he moved her to an uncomfortable house in the woods 2 years later, and then evicted her. She sued for breach.
Allegheny College v. National Chautauqua County Bank of Jamestown
UnreasonableWoman
A woman promised $5,000 to a college in order to set up a fund in her name, but she repudiated the promise and then died. The college sued for the unpaid amount.
Strong v. Sheffield
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff sold a business to Defendant's husband on credit and promised not to collect on the debt until he felt like he needed/wanted the money.
Wood v. Lady Duff-Gordon
UnreasonableWoman
A fashion maven entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with Plaintiff, but then licensed her products to others without consulting Plaintiff.
Rehm-Zeiher Co. v. F.G. Walker Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A whiskey distributor and a distiller entered into an agreement where the distiller would supply the distributor with whiskey, but the distributor could return anything it didn't have a need for.
Mattei v. Hopper
UnreasonableWoman
Two parties agreed on a down payment for a tract of land. Then, one of them backed out of the deal. The other sued, claiming that there was no mutuality of obligation because of a "satisfaction clause" in their original agreement.
Ricketts v. Scothorn
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff's grandpa promised to pay her $2,000/year for life, claiming he did not want her to ever have to work again. Plaintiff quit her job immediately. But then her grandpa died and the executor of the estate refused to pay.
Feinberg v. Pfeiffer Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A company promised to pay a loyal worker a pension for the rest of her life, but when the company leadership changed hands, the payments stopped.
Maryland National Bank v. United Jewish Appeal Fed.
UnreasonableWoman
A donor promised $200,000 to a charitable organization, but then passed away without completing $133,500 of the payment. The charity sued the estate of the donor.
Alaska Airlines, Inc. v. Stephenson
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff was promised a job by an airline. He quit his old job and moved to Alaska for the new one, but then the airline fired him soon after he started there.
Grouse v. Group Health Plan, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A company offered a recent pharmacy school grad a job. The grad resigned from his current position and turned down another offer in reliance on that promise. But then the company reneged on the promise before the grad even started.
Hoffman v. Red Owl Stores, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A man entered into franchising negotiations with a grocery chain. But after asking the man to spend money on equipment and the operation of an experimental store, the grocery chain broke off negotiations.
C.R. Klewin, Inc. v. Flagship Properties, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A company and a man they wanted to hire publicized their agreement to work together and shook on it, but they never entered into a written agreement for most of the job to be done. The company became unhappy with the man's work and hired someone else.
McInerney v. Charter Golf, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A company promised to pay an employee (who had just received an job offer from a competitor with better commissions) a 10% commission on his sales "for life." The employee agreed and passed on the other offer. Then, the company fired him.
Bazak International Corp. v. Mast Industries, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Two merchants agreed on a sale, and memorialized it on a blank purchase order (just because it was the only paper lying around). Then, the seller never fulfilled the order.
Waddle v. Elrod
UnreasonableWoman
One party agreed to transfer interest in real property as a settlement for a lawsuit, and their attorney accepted the agreement by responding to an email. Then, the party changed their mind about the settlement and claimed Statute of Frauds.
Chomicky v. Buttoplh
UnreasonableWoman
Two people made a deal for sale of a portion of property contingent on approval from a third party. They agreed to go through with the sale permit or not, but then the third party denied the permit and the seller backed out of the deal.
Halbman v. Lemke
UnreasonableWoman
A Defendant sold a car to a minor. The minor was making payments on the car, but then it broke down and Plaintiff wanted to void the agreement under the infancy doctrine. Defendant refused to restore the minor's consideration for the broken-down car.
Dodson v. Shrader
UnreasonableWoman
An infant purchased a car without misrepresenting his age. But then the car broke down and he invoked the infancy doctrine to try and get his money back. Defendant refused to accept the broken-down car and did not refund the infant.
In re Marriage of Davis
UnreasonableWoman
After a history of domestic violence, a husband pressured his wife into giving up a ton of stock options during a settlement meeting.
Hauer v. Union State Bank of Wautoma
UnreasonableWoman
A bank made a loan to plaintiff where there was evidence that the bank knew that the plaintiff was not competent to enter into the agreement at the time.
Farnum v. Silvano
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant bought a home from an elderly woman for way less than the home was worth, knowing that she was likely incompetent to enter into an agreement. Defendant claimed, however, that the woman had a "moment of lucidity" at the time of closing.
First State Bank of Sinai v. Hyland
UnreasonableWoman
A man claimed to have entered into a note agreement with a bank while intoxicated, and tried to claim that the contract was void as a result.
Swinton v. Whitinsville Savings Bank
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff sued Defendant bank when it failed to warn him of termites in the home it had sold to him.
Weintraub v. Krobatsch
UnreasonableWoman
A couple bought a house from its owner. Then they realized it was infested with roaches.
Stambovsky v. Ackley
UnreasonableWoman
A guy bought a house from its owner only to find out that it's haunted.
Stroup v. Conant
UnreasonableWoman
A guy told a landlord that he was going to open a shop for trinkets in the space. He actually set up an adult bookstore and everyone else in the building was upset because it was scaring away business.
Market Street Associates v. Frey
UnreasonableWoman
One company invoked a clause in an agreement with another company in hopes that the this company had forgotten one particular paragraph in the agreement that would prove useful.
Vokes v. Arthur Murray, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A dance company (allegedly) took advantage of a recent widow in her fifties by selling her more dance classes than she could use in a lifetime. The dance company promised her that she was improving and that the dance lessons were working.
West Coast Airlines, Inc. v. Miner’s Aircraft & Engine Service, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
The parties entered into an agreement for scrap metal removal, but then the junk removers accidentally took two engines along with the scrap metal.
City of Everett v. Estate of Sumstad
UnreasonableWoman
A couple bought a locked safe at an estate auction "as is." They got the safe opened and found $30,000+ inside.
Wood v. Boynton
UnreasonableWoman
A woman sold a stone to a guy. Both of them weren't sure what it was, so she sold it for $1. It turned out, the stone was an uncut diamond worth $1,000.
Beachcomber Coins v. Boskett
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant sold a dime to a coin dealer for $500, claiming that it was minted in Denver. The coin turned out to be a dupe. The coin dealer sought rescission.
Donovan v. RRL Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
A guy saw an advertisement for a used car. He went to the dealer to buy the car, but they told him that the price in the ad was a mistake. The dealer refused to sell the car for the mistaken price.
Duncan v. Hensley
UnreasonableWoman
A husband and wife were getting divorced. The husband threatened to kill the wife if she did not sign over the farm to him as part of the divorce settlement, so the wife signed it over.
Austin Instrument, Inc. v. Loral Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
A subcontractor threatened a general contractor with the denial of performance if the general contractor did not grant the subcontractor other bids and pay them more.
Centech Group, Inc. v. Gentronicswang Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A general contractor and subcontractor entered into a memorandum of understanding ("MOU"). They then executed a revised MOU, but one of the companies claimed it accepted the revised MOU under economic duress.
Williams v. Walker-Thomas Furniture Co.
UnreasonableWoman
A store implemented a purchase installment plan for Plaintiff that allowed the store to repossess all the things she bought if she defaulted on any payment.
Frostifresh Corp. v. Reynoso
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant bought a fridge/freezer from Plaintiff, but was unable to actually afford it. The Plaintiff used some questionable sales tactics to secure the sale.
Zapatha v. Dairy Mart, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiffs opened up a franchise of Defendant's store. In their agreement, there was a termination clause allowing for either party to terminate the contract at will. Defendants did so, but Plaintiff claimed the termination clause was unconscionable.
In The Matter of Baby M.
UnreasonableWoman
A couple entered into a surrogacy contract with a woman, but once the woman had the baby, she did not want to return her to the couple.
Johnson v. Calvert
UnreasonableWoman
A couple entered into a surrogacy contract with a surrogate who was going to carry their zygote to term (the surrogate had no biological relation to the baby).
Comprehensive Technologies International, Inc. v. Software Artisans, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
A company invoked a non-compete clause against an ex-employee when he started a new venture that they felt was competitive with their own business.
Edwards v. Arthur Andersen LLP
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff was a CPA for Defendant company, but then received an offer for a different job while he was under an 18-month non-compete. Defendant enforced the non-compete and the other company retracted their offer.
Klocek v. Gateway, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff bought a computer from Defendant Gateway. He sued the company, but Gateway claimed that he had to arbitrate because of an arbitration clause contained in the terms they sent to him along with his computer.
Leonard Pevar Co. v. Evans Products Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff company brought suit against Defendant company for selling defective plywood, but the Defendant claimed that Plaintiff was bound by a clause that limited Defendant's liability for defective plywood.
Gianni v. R. Russell & Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff claimed that he and Defendant agreed that Plaintiff was going to have the exclusive right to sell soft drinks in the building where Plaintiff was renting space for its store. The term was not in the written agreement.
Masterson v. Sine
UnreasonableWoman
The parties entered into a written contract regarding a farm, but then one party claimed that they had agreed to another term that was not reflected in the w
Nelson v. Elway
UnreasonableWoman
Parties agreed to a sale of two automobile dealerships under a service agreement that they never put into writing.
David v. G.N. Mortgage Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiffs took out a mortgage and were presented with two stacks of paper by Defendant's agent. They signed without reading, but then found out that a term in the contract was different from what they thought they had agreed to.
W.W.W. Associates, Inc. v. Giancontieri
UnreasonableWoman
The parties entered into a contract with a reciprocal cancellation policy and a merger clause, though Plaintiff insists that the cancellation clause was for their benefit, due to active litigation against Defendant. Defendant used the clause for itself.
PG&E v. Thomas Drayage
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant replaced a turbine cover for Plaintiff under an indemnity clause. The cover fell and damaged a rotor, and Plaintiff sought to enforce the indemnity clause even though it wasn't really meant for Plaintiff's use.
In re Soper’s Estate
UnreasonableWoman
A man faked his own death and left his wife to start a new life. He married a new woman and co-founded a business. In the buyout agreement, the man stated that his portion of the company should go to his "wife" were he to die. Then, he actually died.
Frigaliment Importing v. B.N.S.
UnreasonableWoman
Two companies contracted for the sale of chicken. But Defendant supplied Plaintiff with fowl (stewing chicken) rather than the broiler and fryer chickens Plaintiffs wanted. The court was called upon to answer the question: What is "chicken"?
Nanakuli Paving and Rock Co. v. Shell Oil Company, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant had price protected Plaintiff on two previous occasions, but then refused to price protect Plaintiff from a price increase on the third occasion.
Beanstalk Group, Inc. v. AM General Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff was to receive 35% off the top of gross receipts for licensing deals under its licensing agreement with Defendant. Defendant then sold their trademark and Plaintiff claimed that it was entitled to 35% of the profits.
Dalton v. Educational Testing Service
UnreasonableWoman
A student took the SAT but the administrator suspected him of cheating. When he submitted evidence as part of the resolution process set out in the registration bulletin. But the administrator just didn't take it into account.
Eastern Air Lines, Inc. v. Gulf Oil Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff contracted to supply fuel to Defendant. Oil prices went up significantly, but Defendant continued to pay the old price under the contract. Plaintiff accused Defendant of fuel freighting and breaching the duty of good faith.
Carmichael v. Adirondack Bottled Gas Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff and her husband were selling gas at retail prices supplied by Defendant, who had tried and failed to buy the business in the past. Then, Plaintiff's husband died but she still didn't want to sell. Defendant abruptly terminated their contract.
Brunswick Hills Racquet Club, Inc. v. Route 18 Shopping Center Associates
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant lessor lulled Plaintiff renter into believing that it had used its option in their contract, but then claimed that Plaintiff had not followed the procedure exactly enough and refused to let Plaintiff exercise the option.
Jordan v. Duff Phelps, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
An at-will employee at a company resigned right before a merger deal went through. The employee had stock options that would have dramatically increased in value had he stayed.
Taylor v. Caldwell
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff contracted to rent a music hall from Defendant, but the music hall burned down.
U.S. Bancorp Equipment Finance, Inc. v. Ameriquest Holdings LLC
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff and Defendant were in a lease agreement for airplanes. After 9/11, the airline industry tanked, and Defendant went bankrupt, did not renew its lease, and returned damaged planes to Plaintiff.
Bush v. Protravel International, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff booked a trip through Defendant travel agency. Then, the 9/11 attacks occurred. Plaintiff tried to cancel the trip, but the phone lines in NYC were down. Defendant then refused to return Plaintiff's deposit.
Krell v. Henry
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff rented a room from Defendant to watch the coronation procession, but then the King got sick and the coronation was postponed.
Northern Indiana Public Service Co. v. Carbon County Coal Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff bought coal from Defendant under a fixed price agreement. But then a government order forced Plaintiff's costs to increase, and the agreement with Defendant was no longer beneficial to Plaintiff.
Sub-Zero Freezer Co. v. Cunard Line Ltd.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff booked a voyage with Defendant cruise line. Then, the 9/11 attacks occurred and Plaintiff wanted to rescind, but Defendant refused to issue a refund.
Irving v. Town of Clinton
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant city hired Plaintiff to do snow plowing work and road sanding. The contract for the work was contingent upon voter approval of a specific road work budget, but this budget failed and Defendant wanted to pay Plaintiff less.
Main Electric, Ltd. v. Printz Services Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
Sub and general contractors had a deal where one of the conditions was that GC would pay SC “provided like payment” shall be paid by the owner. Before the project was complete, the owner went insolvent and couldn't pay the GC. The GC didn't pay the SC.
Kingston v. Preston
UnreasonableWoman
Apprentice contracted with Defendant to work for a period of time, after which the apprentice could purchase the business. But after the apprenticeship, Plaintiff tried to purchase without having the money and Defendant refused to sell.
Goodisson v. Nunn
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff and Defendant agreed on the sale of an estate. If either party did not do their part of the contract, they were supposed to pay the other £21. Plaintiff never offered to sell the estate, but then sued Defendant for the £21.
Cantrell-Waind & Associates, Inc. v. Guillaume Motorsports, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant leased a property to Plaintiffs with an option to purchase the property after 2 years. But Defendant was evasive when Plaintiffs attempted to exercise the option.
Clark v. West
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff was hired by Defendant to write books, but one term was that, if Plaintiff drank alcohol on the job, he would only be paid $2 per page. Defendant knew that Plaintiff drank on the job but accepted his work anyway. Defendant then refused to pay.
Gill v. Johnstown Lumber Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff agreed to buy Defendant's logs. But some of the logs that Defendant was delivering were swept away in a flood.
Lowy v. United Pacific Insurance Co.
UnreasonableWoman
An excavation company was hired by Plaintiff to do grading, as well as some paving and street improvements. After 98% of the work was done, the company stopped because of an issue with payment for additional work.
Stark v. Parker
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff agreed to serve Defendant on a yearly basis, but upon leaving Defendant’s employ, wanted to recover on a quantum meruit basis.
Britton v. Turner
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff employed by Defendant for one year, but Plaintiff departed before the year was up without reason.
Maxton Builders, Inc. v. Lo Galbo
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant agreed to purchase a home with a cancellation option if real estate taxes were greater than a specified amount. The taxes were greater but Defendant attempted to cancel after the deadline contemplated by the contract.
Sahadi v. Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust Co. of Chicago
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff received loans from Defendant, but had an issue paying them back. Plaintiff agreed to pay the interest back by Nov. 15, but failed to do so. Defendant almost immediately called the loans, even after Plaintiff tried to tender the payment.
Jacob & Youngs v. Kent
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant specifically asked contractors to use Reading pipe when remodeling his home. P did not use Reading pipe.
O.W. Grun Roofing & Construction Co. v. Cope
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant failed to install roofing according to the terms of contract with Plaintiff (streaked tiles that were not of uniform color).
Van Wagner Advertising Corp. v. S&M Enterprises
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff leased space to place a billboard outside the exit of the Midtown Tunnel, but Defendant took over the lease from a previous owner and canceled it.
Laclede Gas Co. v. Amoco Oil Co.
UnreasonableWoman
The parties contracted regarding a propane delivery subsystem. Defendant was the exclusive provider to Plaintiff and Plaintiff had the exclusive right to cancel. Then, Defendant tried to raise prices during a propane shortage.
Walgreen v. Sara Creek
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff contracted with Defendant to have an exclusivity agreement for pharmacies in Defendant's mall. However, Defendant’s business was failing, so they bought out their anchor tenant and replaced them with a wholesale pharmaceutical store.
City of Columbus v. Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff contracted with Defendant railroads to erect “neat and ornamental” buildings on each side of a newly constructed viaduct to give the impression of a continuous and complete road (hiding cars and depots from view). Defendants mostly refused.
Ryan v. Ocean Twelve, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Tenants in a building built by Defendant allege many construction defects. As a condition of their contract, Defendant agreed to list all incomplete construction elements and finish them in a timely manner. Defendant did not.
J.O. Hooker & Sons, Inc. v, Roberts Cabinet Co.
UnreasonableWoman
General contractor Defendant works with subcontractor Plaintiff cabinet company, and Defendant unilaterally terminated the contract after a dispute arose.
Egerer v. CSR West, LLC
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff contracted Defendant to fill land for development purposes. Initially, Defendant delivered fill to Plaintiff, but the government eventually directed Defendant to stop providing these excavated materials to Plaintiff.
Groves v. John Wunder Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff owned a plant for sorting gravel, and contracted Defendant the rights to their plant with a renewal option. Defendant agreed that after removing the gravel from Plaintiff’s land, they would grade the land. They did not grade the land.
Peevyhouse v. Garland Coal & Mining Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff leased land to Defendant for coal mining. One condition was that Defendant would strip mine and do remedial work to repair the land afterward. However, this work was not done, and it diminished the value of Plaintiff’s property.
Rockingham County v. Luten Bridge Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff constructed a bridge it agreed to construct for Defendant even after Defendant explicitly told Plaintiff that the deal was off. Then Plaintiff sued for the costs it incurred from the construction.
Bomberger v. McKelvey
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff went on with the performance of its part of the contract with Defendant even after Defendant repudiated the contract, because the Plaintiff, for its own purposes, needed some of the materials it would gain from the performance.
Parker v. Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.
UnreasonableWoman
When Defendant canceled the film it contracted Plaintiff actress to work on, it offered her a role in a serious project in Australia, where she would be forfeiting the control and approval rights she had in the previous contract. She refused.
In re Worldcom, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Michael Jordan was an endorser for MCI, which went bankrupt and was absorbed by Worldcom. After MCI’s bankruptcy, Worldcom decided not to continue their work with Jordan.
Hadley v. Baxendale
UnreasonableWoman
Delivery of mill shaft is delayed, but Plaintiff did not tell the Defendant carriers that their delay would cause a loss of profits at their mill.
C. Czarnikow, Ltd. v. Koufos
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff chartered Defendant vessel to sell their sugar in Basra, with an option to continue to Jeddah (not exercised). However, unexpected delays in the delivery caused the sugar to fetch a much lower price than it otherwise would have.
Allen v. Jones
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant mortuary lost the cremated remains of Plaintiff’s brother after it negligently packed them for shipping to Illinois.
Jackson v. Royal Bank of Scotland
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff imported dog chews from Thailand and sold them to a business partner with a markup that it did not inform it about. Defendant bank negligently sent an invoice revealing Plaintiff’s markups to the partner, who then canceled the contract.
Kenford Co. v. County of Erie
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff entered into a contract with Defendant county to build a multipurpose sports dome. Then Defendant refused to build the dome.
Florafax International, Inc. v. GTE Market Resources, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff company subcontracted with Defendant to field phone calls for outgoing flower orders for themselves, florists in their network, and third party companies. Defendant breached, causing a third-party client to end their contract with Plaintiff.nti
Deitsch v. The Music Co.
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant band was hired by Plaintiffs for their wedding, and Plaintiffs delivered music to them well in advance. Defendant confirmed the night before the event, but then did not show.
Sullivan v. O’Connor
UnreasonableWoman
An entertainer sued her surgeon for botching her 2-part nose job surgery (which required 3 parts).
TAL Financial Corp. v. CSC Consulting, Inc.
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff leased IT materials to a company later acquired by Defendant. When the company moved to relocate to Defendant’s main office, however, they ditched Plaintiff’s materials and documents, and Plaintiff called this a default.
NPS, LLC v. Minihane
UnreasonableWoman
Defendant bought luxury seats at Gillette Stadium and signed a 10-year right to the seats. After a year, Defendant defaulted, and Plaintiff insisted that Defendant pay liquidated damages according to the acceleration clause in their contract.
Wartzman v. Hightower Productions
UnreasonableWoman
Plaintiff formed a promotional entertainment partnership and wanted to raise money through selling public stock. They hired Defendant law firm partner to incorporate their corporation, but Defendant negligently failed to structure the company properly.
Cotnam v. Wisdom
UnreasonableWoman
Doctors performed an emergency procedure on an unconscious person, after the person had sustained serious injuries in a car accident. Then, the person died and the doctors sought to recover the fair value of the services they provided.
Farese v. McGarry
UnreasonableWoman
Under his lease's terms, Defendant believed that he would have an option to renew. Pursuant to this understanding, he made improvements to the property. But Plaintiff insisted that Defendant overstayed his lease and told him to vacate the property.
Pyeatte v. Pyeatte
UnreasonableWoman
Wife put off her plans for graduate school as part of an agreement with her husband, where she would work while he attended law school, and then he would support her afterward. But the husband then asked for a divorce before the wife went to grad school.
Hammontree v. Jenner
Lan
Driver with epilepsy crashed into Plaintiff after suffering from a seizure. Court held that a negligence standard was appropriate in evaluating liability.
Christensen v. Swenson
Lan
Security guard got into an accident on her lunch break right outside of her place of employment. The Court rules that a jury should decide whether the guard was acting within her scope of employment.
Riggs v. United States
LegalWriter
Grandson kills grandfather for inheritance, statute is silent about consequences of an heir murdering the testator. The spirit of the law trumps the letter of the law, so the killer grandson cannot inherit from his grandfather.
Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States
LegalWriter
A statute that prohibited the importation of foreign labor did not prohibit the situation of an American church hiring a foreign pastor.
W. Va. Univ. Hosps. v. Casey
LegalWriter
Expert fees do not count as attorney’s fees under 42 U.S.C. § 1988, so pursuant to that statute, a losing party does not have to pay the fees incurred by the winner in hiring experts.
Roessler v. Novak
Lan
A patient suffered complications after treatment by a doctor who was contracted to work at a hospital. The Court finds that the jury should decide whether the doctor is considered an agent of the hospital.
General Dynamics Land Systems, Inc. v. Cline
LegalWriter
It is acceptable under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act for a company to provide healthcare benefits to retired workers over 50 years old and not retired workers under 50 years old.
Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co.
Pilea
A common trust fund informed non-resident beneficiaries of impending settlement via publication in a newspaper, despite having their contact information. This was in violation of due process.
Gunn v. Minton
Pilea
A hypothetical question of patent law does not qualify a case to be heard in federal court on the basis of federal question subject matter jurisdiction.
Ceglia v. Zuckerberg
Pilea
Determining an individual's residency is dependent upon a multi-factor test, which establishes their intent to remain domiciled in a state.
Hackman v. One Brands, LLC
Pilea
To calculate the amount in controversy for diversity jurisdiction, claims brought on behalf of multiple people may not be added together to meet the amount.
United Mine Workers of America v. Gibbs
Pilea
For pendent jurisdiction to be asserted, the federal and state claims must derive from the same nucleus of operative fact.
Owen Equipment and Erection Co. v. Kroger
Pilea
Plaintiffs in diversity jurisdiction may not amend a suit to add a non-diverse party as the defendant, because it destroys diversity jurisdiction.
Finley v. United States
Pilea
Pendent party jurisdiction may not allow the federal courts to adjudicate a claim against a party who would not otherwise be subject to federal jurisdiction simply because it arose from a common nucleus of operative fact as a claim against another party
Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins
Pilea
Federal courts may not disregard state common law when sitting in diversity.
Guaranty Trust Co. v. York
Pilea
Outcome determinative test redefined the difference between substantive and procedural law as defined in the Erie Doctrine.
Byrd v. Blue Ridge Rural Electric Cooperative
Pilea
The outcome determinative test for choice of law is modified to be balanced by other considerations, such as an essential characteristic of the federal courts (trial by jury).
Hanna v. Plumer
Pilea
Focus on the purpose of the Erie Doctrine to narrow the outcome determinative application further, and apply federal law only when it is truly procedural (even if the outcome is affected).
Walker v. Armco Steel Corp.
Pilea
When there is not a direct clash between federal and state procedural rules, the twin aims of Erie must be evaluated to determine which law governs.
Brown v. Kendall
Lan
Defendant accidentally poked Plaintiff's eye with a stick while trying to separate their dogs. Court finds that Defendant is only at fault for injury resulting from a failure to exercise ordinary care.
Adams v. Bullock
Lan
Boy swung a wire under a bridge and got electrocuted by the uninsulated trolley wire underneath. Court holds that Defendant trolley company did not act unreasonably in failing to prevent against this unforeseeable injury.
Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, Inc.
Pilea
The court focuses on accommodating state law in choice of law issues wherever possible. When state and federal law may coexist, the court reverts to the outcome determinative choice of law test.
Shady Grove Orthopedic Assoc. v. Allstate Ins. Co.
Pilea
There is an inevitable conflict between state and federal laws. If the federal (procedural) law has statutory and constitutional authorization, then it governs.
Conley v. Gibson
Pilea
Simplified notice pleading standard – takes a plain text reading of FRCP 8 and 9.
Bell Atlantic Corp v. Twombly
Pilea
The standard for pleading moves to a stricter, plausibility pleading standard, which makes it more difficult for claims to get access to courts.
Ashcroft v. Iqbal
Pilea
This case extends the plausibility pleading standard as articulated in Twombly to all civil cases, extending the standard past the context of antitrust cases.
Bower v. Weisman
Pilea
This case illustrates examples of a motion for a more definite statement, and a motion to dismiss for failure to state fraud with particularity.
Singletary v. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections
Pilea
This case covers the rules governing amendments to a pleading to add a new party, after the statute of limitations for the case has run.
Krupski v. Costa Crociere S.P.A.
Pilea
Amendments relating back depend solely on the amended party's knowledge as to notice of the possibility of being served, not on the amending party's knowledge.
Cooper v. Fitzgerald
Pilea
This case illustrates the rules for valid permissive joinder, and demonstrates that a court may sever a party if they are joined improperly under FRCP 20.
Podhorn v. Paragon Group, Inc.
Pilea
This case illustrates FRCP 13, and the four tests that must be applied to determine if a counterclaim is compulsory.
Temple v. Synthes Corp.
Pilea
Joint tortfeasors are permissively joined parties, and do not meet the threshold requirements for FRCP 19(a) compulsory joinder.
Daynard v. Ness, Motley, Loadholt, Richardson & Poole, P.A.
Pilea
This case illustrates an example of a party that is neither necessary nor indispensable under the FRCP 19 requirements
Gross v. Hanover Ins. Co.
Pilea
This case is an example of a party bringing in a 3rd party defendant via impleader, who may be liable for all or part of the claims against the defendant.
United States v. Olavarrieta
Pilea
This case is an example of a motion for impleader being dismissed, as it fails to meet the requirement of the third party defendant being liable to the defendant for all or part of their claim.
United States v. Northern Indiana Public Service Co., et al.
Pilea
This case is an example of dismissal of a motion to intervene on the basis of FRCP 24(a)(2).
Hansberry v. Lee
Pilea
Res judicata may only bind parties who were adequately represented in a prior suit.
Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Shutts
Pilea
Jurisdictional requirements of notice, and due process concerns, are less strict for class actions.
Hickman v. Taylor
Pilea
Discovery may not be used to give access to an attorney's privileged work-product.
Oxbow Carbon & Minerals LLC v. Union Pacific R.R. Co.
Pilea
This case gives an example as to the proportionality factor that must be met for a discovery request to be granted.
Alley v. MTD Products, Inc.
Pilea
This case demonstrates the relative importance of the six factors in the proportionality balancing test for discovery.
Freedom's Path at Dayton v. Dayton Metro Hous. Auth.
Pilea
This case is an example of a case in which a motion for a protective order of information requested in discovery is denied, but no sanction is granted.
Chaplin v. Du Pont Advance Fiber Systems
Pilea
This case gives an example of an FRCP 11 sanction for filing a complaint with allegations that are not supported by facts.
Chauffeurs, Teamsters and Helpers, Local No. 391 v. Terry
Pilea
This case demonstrates the two-step test to define the term "common law" in the seventh amendment, and thereby determine when an individual is entitled to a jury trial.
Adickes v. S. H. Kress & Co.
Pilea
The party moving for summary judgment has the burden of showing the absence of a genuine issue of material fact.
Celotex Corp. v. Catrett
Pilea
When a defendant moves for summary judgment, they must meet the burden of showing that the non-movant lacks sufficient facts.
Galloway v. United States
Pilea
A judgment as a matter of law (directed verdict) does not violate the Seventh Amendment.
Brandon v. Chicago Board of Education
Pilea
This case gives an example of a motion to vacate judgment that is not granted.
Walgreen Co. v. Sara Creek Property Co.
Pilea
This case illustrates an example of evaluating whether an injunction or damages is the more appropriate remedy.
Brown v. Plata
Pilea
The severe overcrowding of CA prisons violates the Eighth Amendment, and so the Court issuing an order to remedy the situation is valid.
Carey v. Piphus
Pilea
Denial of procedural due process without proof of actual injury is actionable only for nominal damages.
Car Carriers, Inc. v. Ford Motor Company
Pilea
This case demonstrates res judicata barring a claim that had been validly previously litigated.
Taylor v. Sturgell
Pilea
This case demonstrates an exception to the mutuality of claim preclusion.
David P. Hoult v. Jennifer Hoult
Pilea
Even if an issue was not an explicit part of an earlier final judgment, it may be barred by collateral estoppel.
Jarosz v. Palmer
Pilea
This case gives an example of a court determining that an issue previously litigated was not essential enough to justify issue preclusion.
Parklane Hosiery Co. v. Shore
Pilea
This case holds that trial courts should be granted broad discretion to determine when offensive collateral estoppel applies.
Kindred Nursing Centers LP v. Clark
Pilea
This case determines that the FAA preempts state laws that bar forced arbitration agreements.
Jacque v. Steenberg Homes
Chris22
The Wisconsin Supreme Court upheld an award for punitive damages after the defendant intentionally trespassed on the plaintiff's land, even though there were no actual damages.
Hinman v. Pacific Air Transport
Chris22
The court held that a landowner does not have the right to prevent someone from traversing the airspace above his land.
Regina v. Dudley and Stephens
ErieAndSpooky
Three seamen and one boy lost at sea with no food for 24 days. Two men killed and ate boy; guilty of murder despite necessity because was not in self-defense.
Martin v. State
ErieAndSpooky
Man arrested while drunk in his home and brought onto highway by police. Cant be held liable for public drunkenness because public appearance was not voluntary
People v. Newton
ErieAndSpooky
Defendant was shot in abdomen, then shot and killed police officer while unconscious from shock of abdominal wound. Not guilty of homicide because unconscious
Pope v. State
ErieAndSpooky
Woman fails to stop or report child abuse, found not guilty because moral, not legal obligation
Regina v. Cunningham
ErieAndSpooky
Man rips gas meter off wall to steal money inside. Gas leaks and poisons woman in neighboring house. Jury improperly directed on meaning of malice, and conviction quashed.
Regina v. Faulkner
ErieAndSpooky
Man accidentally starts fire on boat while attempting to steal rum. Conviction for arson quashed because jury improperly directed.
Elonis v. United States
ErieAndSpooky
Man makes threatening posts on facebook. Charged with making interstate threats, but reversed by Supreme Court because lacked mens rea requirement.
United States v. Jewell
ErieAndSpooky
Man entered US driving car with 110 lbs. of marijuana in secret compartment. Claimed he was unaware of marijuana, but charged with knowingly transporting because "knowingly" encompasses deliberate ignorance
US v. Carroll Towing Co.
Lan
Plaintiff's barge sank due to Defendant's negligence, but if Plaintiff had had a bargee on board, it could have prevented injury. Court holds that Plaintiff can be held liable for its failure to have a bargee on board.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. v. Goodman
Lan
Goodman's view of the train tracks was blocked and he did not get out of his truck to check for an approaching train before continuing across the tracks. He was hit by a train and SCOTUS held that his failure to check made him negligent.
Pokora v. Wabash Railway Co.
Lan
Pokora's view of the train tracks was blocked but he continued forward without leaving his vehicle to check for a train and was hit. SCOTUS holds that a jury should decide whether Pokora acted negligently.
Andrews v. United Airlines, Inc.
Lan
Airline had warned passengers of falling luggage but taken no additional security measures. After falling luggage injured a passenger, the Court holds that a jury should decide whether the airline was negligent.
Trimarco v. Klein
Lan
Tenant was injured by non-shatterproof glass and argued that landlord was negligent in failing to switch to shatterproof glass, according to custom. Court holds that this is not a customs case.
Martin v. Herzog
Lan
Plaintiff driving without lights and Defendant driving outside the lane collided around a curve. Court holds that Plaintiff's failure to have the buggy lights on at night was negligence per se.
Tedla v. Ellman
Lan
Tedla walked along the highway in the direction of traffic, violating a NY statute, to avoid the heavy traffic on the other side. Court holds that despite violating a statute, Tedla had exercised reasonable care.
Bailey v. West
ALAB
Farmer boards a horse knowing that the horse's ownership is disputed. A contract was not formed and the farmer is not entitled to compensation.
Bolin Farms v. American Cotton
ALAB
Farmers want out of forward sales agreement for cotton when the price of cotton unexpectedly doubles after contract is formed.
United States v. Kirby
LegalWriter
Arresting a mail carrier on felony charges it not a violation of a federal statute that prohibits the obstruction of mail delivery.
Public Citizen v. Department of Justice
LegalWriter
The President’s utilization of the American Bar Association Committee is not governed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and it would be absurd if this utilization fell under the statute.
United States v. Locke
LegalWriter
Filing a claim under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act on December 31st constitutes a late filing because the statute says that claims must be filed prior to December 31st.
Nix v. Hedden
LegalWriter
The ordinary meaning of a tomato is that it’s a vegetable, and thus a tomato counts as a vegetable for purposes of the Tariff Act regulating vegetables.
Moskal v. United States
LegalWriter
Someone who knowingly acquires genuine vehicle titles with fraudulent odometer readings knows that the titles were falsely made and thus has violated the National Stolen Property Act.
Smith v. United States
LegalWriter
Trading a gun for drugs constitutes “use” of a firearm relating to a drug trafficking crime within the scope of 18 U.S.C. § 924(c)(1).
Train v. Colorado Pub. Int. Research Group, Inc.
LegalWriter
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act does not give the Environmental Protection Agency the power to regulate nuclear waste because nuclear waste is not a “pollutant” within the intended purpose of the Act.
Blanchard v. Bergeron
LegalWriter
The amount of a “reasonable attorney’s fee” award under 42 U.S.C. § 1988 cannot be capped by a pre-existing fee agreement between the prevailing party and its attorneys in a civil rights action.
Cont'l Can Co. v. Chi. Truck Drivers, Helpers & Warehouse Workers Union Pension Fund
LegalWriter
The term “substantially all” in 29 U.S.C. § 1383(d)(2) has its specialized legal meaning of “85%” and not the meaning of “50.1%” that was stated in the statute’s legislative history.
Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Allapattah Services, Inc.
LegalWriter
§ 1367 overrules Zahn and permits a federal court to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over plaintiffs in a diversity action who do not meet the amount in controversy requirement if other plaintiffs in the case do meet the requirement.
Hendricks v. Stalnaker
Chris22
A private nuisance is a substantial and unreasonable interference with another's private use/enjoyment of his own property.
Pile v. Pedrick
Chris22
A trespasser must remove the encroachment and bear the full cost of doing so, regardless of how minor the encroachment.
Golden Press, Inc. v. Rylands
Chris22
A minor, unintentional encroachment onto another's property may not merit mandatory injunction, where the burden of removal greatly outweighs the damage to the plaintiff.
Baker v. Howard County Hunt
Chris22
An injunction is appropriate to prevent repeated and continuing trespasses to land.
Pierson v. Post
Chris22
A hunter must capture or kill a wild animal in order to possess it.
Ghen v. Rich
Chris22
A fisherman who killed a whale had established possession over it, even though he did not take immediate physical control over the animal. The local custom required the finder to return the animal to the fisherman who killed it.
Keeble v. Hickeringill
Chris22
An owner of land with a decoy pond is the first possessor of the ducks that swim in the pond. A neighbor who scares the ducks away
Negri v. Stop and Shop
Lan
Plaintiff slipped by broken and messy baby food jars; Court finds that there is sufficient evidence to support jury finding that jars had been out long enough for Defendant to discover and clean up the mess.
Gordon v. American Museum of Natural History
Lan
Plaintiff slipped on a clean piece of waxy paper; Court holds that there was not enough evidence to support a finding that Defendant had actual or constructive notice of the paper.
Byrne v. Boadle
Lan
A barrel of flour fell out of Defendant's window onto Plaintiff; Court holds that falling barrel itself is evidence of negligence.
McDougald v. Perry
Lan
A tire fell out of a trailer and hit Plaintiff's car; Court finds that res ipsa loquitur is applicable here.
Ybarra v. Spangard
Lan
Plaintiff woke up from surgery with back and neck pain but it was unclear which doctor/nurse was responsible; Court holds that RIL could still apply despite multiple Defendants and multiple potential causes of injury.
Sheeley v. Memorial Hospital
Lan
A procedure by a medical resident goes wrong and Plaintiff hires an expert to testify at trial; Court finds that expert is qualified to testify because he is knowledgeable of the specific procedure.
Corning Glass Works v. Brennan
LegalWriter
It is a violation of the Equal Pay Act to pay higher wages to male workers on the night shift than to female workers who do the same work on the day shift.
McBoyle v. United States
LegalWriter
An airplane is not a “motor vehicle” within the meaning of that term in the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act.
Gustafson v. Alloyd Co.
LegalWriter
A “prospectus” for purposes of § 12(2) of the Securities Act of 1933 is a document that details a public offering of securities.
People v. Smith
LegalWriter
A rifle is not a “dangerous weapon” within the term’s meaning in a state statute prohibiting the concealed carry of weapons.
Circuit City Stores, Inc. v. Adams
LegalWriter
The Federal Arbitration Act only exempts the employment contracts of transportation workers from its rule that arbitration agreements are binding.
NLRB v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago
LegalWriter
The National Labor Relations Act does not apply to church-operated schools, so a religion-centered employer who refuses to engage in collective bargaining with employees does not violate the statute.
Gregory v. Ashcroft
LegalWriter
State judges fall within an exception to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, so the statute does not apply to state judges.
O'Connor v. Oakhurst Dairy
LegalWriter
A grammatical and fair reading of a Maine overtime law results in the inclusion of a Maine dairy’s delivery drivers within the protections of the law.
United States v. Marshall
LegalWriter
The weight of the paper on which LSD is sold counts as part of the weight of LSD under the Controlled Substances Act.
Hampton v. United States
LegalWriter
Congress can delegate its power of setting tariff rates to executive branch officers as long as Congress provides clear direction and doesn’t give the President sole discretion over the power.
A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States
LegalWriter
Congress’ delegation to the President of the power to approve codes of fair competition into law did not have an intelligible principle and was not a valid delegation of legislative power.
Hamer v. Sidway
ALAB
Uncle promises nephew money for good behavior. Nephew follows uncle's rules but uncle dies before nephew receives the money, and sues uncle's estate for the promised amount.
Langer v. Superior Steel Corp.
ALAB
Former employer stops paying pension as promised. Employee's non-compete agreement is consideration for the pension.
Apfel v. Prudential-Bache Securities
ALAB
Company sells investment company an idea for computerized bond sales. The idea does not need to be novel, only valuable to the recipient, to be consideration.
Alaska Packers’ Ass'n v. Domenico
ALAB
Fisherman strike for increased pay during time-sensitive season, and unable to find replacements, the contractor agrees. Accession to their demands was not enforceable under preexisting duty rule.
Whitman v. American Trucking Assns., Inc.
LegalWriter
Congress’ delegation to the Environmental Protection Agency the power to set national ambient air quality standards under the Clean Air Act has an intelligible principle and is a valid delegation of legislative power.
Indus. Union Dept. v. Amer. Petroleum Inst.
LegalWriter
The Occupational Safety and Health Act does not allow the Secretary of Labor to set a standard for a permissible level of benzene exposure in the workplace without evidence that the standard is supported by the best scientific evidence available.
Gundy v. United States
LegalWriter
It was constitutional for Congress to delegate power to the Attorney General to retroactively apply the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act to sex offenders convicted before the Act’s implementation.
INS v. Chadha
LegalWriter
It is unconstitutional for a single house of Congress to have the power to pass a legislative veto over an executive branch decision, because this violates the constitutional requirements of presentment and bicameralism.
Bowsher v. Synar
LegalWriter
The doctrine of separation of powers is violated when Congress delegates executive branch functions to the Comptroller General and has the authority to remove the Comptroller General under the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act.
Myers v. United States
LegalWriter
The President has sole authority to remove an executive branch officer, and Congress cannot give itself a role in the removal of executive officers except by impeachment.
Wood v. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon
ALAB
Fashion influencer gives her marketer exclusive rights to her endorsement and designs, but she does side deals. Contract included consideration because it implied that marketer had duties to influencer.
Ricketts v. Scothern
ALAB
Grandpa promises his granddaughter cash allowance gratuitously so she doesn't have to work. Promise is enforceable under doctrine of equitable estoppel.
Allegheny College v. National Chautauqua County Bank
ALAB
College sues executor of woman's will after she reneges on her promise to posthumously endow a scholarship in her name. College's acceptance of partial donation and agreement to name fund after her was sufficient consideration for formation.
Congregation Kadimah Toras-Moshe v. DeLeo
ALAB
Deathbed promise to give money to congregation is not enforceable under promissory estoppel or consideration.
Matthies v. Mastromonaco
Lan
Elderly woman with a broken hip was prescribed bed rest instead of surgery and sued saying she didn't give informed consent; Court holds that informed consent is required even for noninvasive treatments.
Embry v. Hargadine, McKittrick Dry Goods Co.
ALAB
Boss insinuates that employee's contract will be renewed. Regardless of the boss's intention, a contract was formed because a reasonable person would have interpreted the boss's words as a promise.
Lucy v. Zehmer
ALAB
Real estate sale “made in jest” is still enforceable when sellers' conduct led buyer to reasonably conclude that the assent was real.
Southworth v. Oliver
ALAB
Information sheet on potential land sale was an offer in the context of prior negotiation and in light of its definiteness.
Beneficial National Bank v. Payton
ALAB
Credit card company modified terms of agreement to include a mandatory arbitration provision. Consumer did not object to modification per the original agreement, so the arbitration provision was binding.
Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway v. Columbus Rolling-Mill
ALAB
Company proposes a modified acceptance, which offeror rejects. Company then attempts to accept the original terms, but no contract is formed because their power of acceptance has been terminated.
Raffles v. Wichelhaus
ALAB
Parties sign a contract for goods to be delivered on a ship named Peerless, but there are 2 ships with this name. Parties were referring to different ships, and their misunderstanding invalidated the contract.
Harper v. Herman
Lan
Plaintiff was out on Defendant's boat and dove into waters that Defendant knew were too shallow for diving; Court holds that Defendant had no duty to warn Plaintiff and thus cannot be held liable for his injuries.
Farwell v. Keaton
Lan
After Farwell was seriously injured when Farwell and Siegrist tried to pick up some girls together, Siegrist left him in front of his grandparents' house instead of seeking medical attention; Court holds Siegrist breached his duty to Farwell.
Randi W. v. Muroc Joint Unified School District
Lan
Defendant school districts gave positive references for Gadams despite knowing his history of sexual misconduct, and Plaintiff student ended up being abused by Gadams; Court holds that Defendants breached their duty to Plaintiff.
United States v. Wegematic Corp.
ALAB
Company promises to deliver a wonder computer but couldn't make it work. Not allowed an impracticability defense because they assumed the risk.
Bernstein v. Nemeyer
ALAB
Partnership to flip apartments fails, and the parties both lose their investment. No restitution owed without unjust enrichment.
Clark v. Marsiglia
ALAB
Clark hires Marsiglia to clean his paintings, but midway through Marsiglia's work, Clark breaches and tells Marsiglia to stop. Marsiglia is not entitled to damages for work performed after the breach.
Hadley v. Baxendale
ALAB
Courier's delay in shipping miller's order results in miller's lost profits. Miller cannot recover damages for lost profits because the courier did not know or have reason to know that their delay would result in the lost profits.
Williams v. Walker-Thomas Furniture Co.
ALAB
Rent-to-buy form contract with clause to repossess all furniture ever bought. Unconscionable and non-enforceable.
International News Services v. Associated Press
Chris22
The court found that news collection agencies have a quasi property interest in the news they collect, such that it constitutes an unfair trade practice to sell another agency's news as your own.
Haslem v. Lockwood
Chris22
The court found that a person who put in the work to gather a resource had acquired a property interest in that resource, even if he did not haul it away immediately.
Wetherbee v. Green
Chris22
When a person accidentally trespasses, takes chattels from the land of another, and then greatly increases the value of the chattels, the owner of the land can only recover for the trespass.
Edwards v. Sims
Chris22
The court has the right to order a survey of an owner's land to determine the coextensive property rights of adjacent landowners.
Market Street Associates v. Frey
ALAB
One party benefits from other party's oversight in negotiations. It is a question for trial whether the beneficiary intentionally tricked the other party in violation of good faith duty.
Patterson v. Meyerhofer
ALAB
Buyer goes to auction and outbids the seller who was supposed to buy and convey the properties to her. Buyer breached duty of good faith by intentionally preventing the other party's performance.
OneBeacon America Insurance Co. v. Travelers Indemnity Company of Illinois
ALAB
Car is double-insured, and when car gets into an accident, the two insurers have dispute over whether one is obligated to contribute to settlement payment. Reformation is appropriate because the contract did not reflect the parties' actual intent.
Jacob & Youngs v. Kent
ALAB
Homeowner contracts for builder to use a specific pipe. Builder uses the wrong kind, but substantially performs, so homeowner is not entitled to damages.
First Hawaiian Bank v. Zukerkorn
ALAB
Customer may have acknowledged old bank debts with a new credit card agreement. Statute of limitations is not dispositively renewed.
Webb v. McGowin
ALAB
Webb saves McGowin from falling log. Subsequent promise to cover Webb till death was enforceable.
American Mechanical v. Union Machine
ALAB
Company backed out on property sale deal. Non-breaching party entitled to actual losses because they were foreseeable.
American Standard, Inc. v. Schectman
ALAB
Cost of performance is awarded because grading was not incidental to the contract, even though it is disproportionate to the actual economic value of the product.
Northern Indiana Public Service v. Carbon County Coal
ALAB
Northern Indiana finds a cheaper source of electricity, and breaches on their contract with coal company. Specific performance is not granted because the breach was efficient and in the public's best interests.
In re Katrina Canal Breaches Litigation
ALAB
Class action for victims of Katrina whose insurance policies excluded flood damage. No recovery because flood is not an ambiguous contract term.
Frigaliment Importing v. B.N.S. International Sales
ALAB
Dispute over what *is* "chicken." The meaning is ambiguous in the contract, but external evidence favors a broader interpretation of the term.
Pacific Gas & Electric v. Drayage
ALAB
The meaning of an indemnity provision is ambiguous. Parol evidence should be examined to determine parties' intent and the terms' proper meaning.
Alaska Northern Development v. Alyeska Pipeline Service
ALAB
Parol evidence is inadmissible for a partially integrated letter of intent, where such external evidence would contradict the integrated portion of the writing.
AT&T Mobility, LLC v. Concepcion
ALAB
Free phone came with a fee. Arbitration agreement was enforceable because FAA preempted state rule against class waivers in such agreements as unconscionable.
Sullivan v. O'Connor
ALAB
Surgeon botches a nose job for an entertainer. She is entitled to recover for the pain and emotional distress she suffered.
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California
Lan
Psychologist was sued for failure to protect the woman that her patient ended up killing; Court finds that psychologist owed a duty of care to the victim.
Uhr v. East Greenbush Central School District
Lan
Plaintiffs sued school district over failure to test their child for scoliosis, as required by statute; Court finds no private right of action is created by statute.
Cuyler v. United States
Lan
Plaintiff sued Defendants for failing to warn of an abusive babysitter, who killed Plaintiff's child; Court holds that Defendants owed no duty of care to Plaintiff's child.
Strauss v. Belle Realty Co.
Lan
Plaintiff fell due to poor lighting in a common area of his building; Court holds that utility company could not be held liable due to the lack of contractual relationship between Plaintiff and utility company.
H.R. Moch Co. v. Rensselaer Water Co
Lan
Plaintiff's warehouse burned down due to utility company's failure to supply fire hydrant water; Court holds that company cannot be held liable for its failure.
Reynolds v. Hicks
Lan
Defendants' underage nephew was served alcohol at defendants' wedding and got into a car accident injuring Plaintiff; Court finds that Defendants owed no duty of care to Plaintiff.
Vince v. Wilson
Lan
Plaintiff injured in a car accident sued the grandaunt who purchased the car and the salesman and car sales place; Court held that there was a prima facie case for negligent entrustment for all three.
Carter v. Kinney
Lan
Kinneys invited Carter over to their house, and Carter slipped on the frosty sidewalk outside; Court holds that Carter was a licensee and thus the Kinneys only had a duty to protect him from known dangers.
Strain v. Green
Chris22
Mirrors that had been affixed to the walls of a house and lights were fixtures, so they were part of the sale of the home.
Scott v. Anderson-Tully Co.
Chris22
A company that had used a tract of land peacefully, exclusively, and openly from 1969-2010 had established title in the land by adverse po
Carpenter v. Ruperto
Chris22
An adverse possessor must use the land under good faith claim of right. If the squatter knew that the land was owned by someone else, she cannot establish ownership of the land by adverse possession.
Songbyrd v. Estate of Grossman
Chris22
The statute of limitations begins running at the time of conversion.
Armory v. Delamirie
Chris22
The finder of an object has a claim of possession over the object that is enforceable against everyone except the true owner.
Clark v. Maloney
Chris22
A first finder of chattels has a better claim to title than a second finder, and losing property does not divest him of his property interest.
Anderson v. Gouldberg
Chris22
A person who obtained possession of personal property by trespassing had a better claim to title than complete strangers to the property, even if his property interest was weaker than that of the true owner.
Fisher v. Steward
Chris22
A person who finds a tree with bees in it on the property of another does not establish possession of the bees by marking the tree. In fact, in doing so, he trespassed.
Heins v. Webster County
Lan
It was disputed whether Plaintiff was on Defendant's property paying a social visit (licensee) or providing material benefit through labor (invitee); Court abolishes the licensee/invitee distinction.
Posecai v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Lan
Plaintiff was robbed in Defendant store's parking lot due to lack of security guard; Court holds that the low foreseeability of a crime occurring did not outweigh the burden of imposing a duty upon Defendant.
Broadbent v. Broadbent
Lan
Plaintiff father brought suit against Defendant mother for failing to properly watch their son; Court holds that doctrine of parental immunity no longer applies.
Benn v. Thomas
Lan
Defendant negligently caused a car accident, resulting in death of someone with a history of coronary disease; Court holds that decedent's unforeseeable weaker condition did not defeat proximate cause (eggshell plaintiff rule).
McLaughlin v. Mine Safety Appliances
Lan
Defendant's product was used incorrectly by a fireman, resulting in serious injuries to a child; Court holds that fireman's disregard of instructions could constitute a superseding cause that defeats proximate cause.
Derdiarian v. Felix Contracting Corp.
Lan
A driver negligently drove through a barricaded work site, injuring a worker; Court holds that the contracting company could still be found negligent for failing to properly protect the site, despite the driver's negligence.
Goddard v. Winchell
Chris22
A meteorite that was three feet under the ground was "affixed to the soil," so the owner of the land on which it fell was the owner of the meteorite.
People v. Olivo
Chris22
A person can be convicted of grand larceny even if he was apprehended while still inside the store.
Intel Corporation v. Hamidi
Chris22
Sending disparaging emails to employees on a company's email servers does not constitute a trespass to chattels.
Berg v. Wiley
Chris22
The only way that a landlord can evict a tenant who has neither abandoned nor surrendered possession of the property is by using the judicial process.
Williams v. Ford Motor Co.
Chris22
A repossession is lawful unless its imposes violence or a risk of violence.
Ploof v. Putnam
Chris22
Private necessity justifies conduct that would otherwise be considered trespass.
McConico v. Singleton
Chris22
Where the local custom and law granted hunters the right to hunt on unenclosed and undeveloped lands, the law of trespass did not divest them of such rights. So, a landowner could not exclude the hunters from his land.
State v. Shack
Chris22
The law of trespass does not permit a landowner to exclude health and legal aid providers from providing services to migrant workers living on his property.
Palsgraf v. Long Island Railroad Co.
Lan
When Defendant's employees helped a man board a train, the man's package fell, causing a fireworks explosion and injuring Plaintiff 20ft away; Court holds Defendant owed no duty to Plaintiff.
Humphrey's Executor v. United States
LegalWriter
The President can only remove the Federal Trade Commissioner for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office under the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Morrison v. Olson
LegalWriter
It is constitutional for Congress to only permit the Attorney General to remove an independent counsel “for good cause” under the Ethics in Government Act.
United States v. Florida East Coast Ry. Co.
LegalWriter
The formal rulemaking procedures of the Administrative Procedure Act are not triggered if the phrase “on the record after the opportunity for an agency hearing” does not appear in a statute empowering an agency to make rules.
United States v. Nova Scotia Food Products Corp.
LegalWriter
The Food and Drug Administration did not promulgate valid regulations when it did not disclose the scientific basis and key considerations underlying the regulations.
Chocolate Mfrs. Ass’n, United States v. Block
LegalWriter
An agency’s final rule excluding flavored milk is invalid because it was not a logical outgrowth of a proposed rule including flavored milk, and thus did not provide adequate notice of the potential exclusion.
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. NRDC
LegalWriter
A court generally cannot impose upon a federal agency additional procedural requirements beyond those in the Administrative Procedure Act and the statute governing the agency.
SEC v. Chenery Corp.
LegalWriter
Federal agencies can formulate standards of conduct through ad hoc adjudication in addition to the rulemaking process.
NLRB v. Bell Aerospace Co.
LegalWriter
An administrative agency generally has discretion to choose between rulemaking and ad hoc adjudication in setting new standards of conduct.
Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. NRDC
LegalWriter
The Environmental Agency’s construction of the term “stationary sources” in the Clean Air Act to include a “bubble policy” is reasonable in the absence of clear Congressional intent otherwise.
MCI Communications Corp. v. AT&T Co.
LegalWriter
The term “modify” in the Communications Act does not permit the Federal Communications Commission to make the statute’s tariff filing requirement largely optional.
FDA v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp.
LegalWriter
The Food and Drug Administration cannot regulate tobacco products under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Motor Vehicle Mfrs. Ass'n v. State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins. Co.
LegalWriter
It is arbitrary and capricious for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to rescind a rule when the agency did not analyze relevant data or articulate a rational explanation for the agency’s decision.
Falzone v. Busch
Lan
Plaintiff saw her husband get hit by a car and suffered injuries as a result of fear and emotional distress; Court holds that Plaintiff can recover damages despite the lack of physical impact.
Metro-North Commuter Railroad Co. v. Buckley
Lan
Plaintiff was exposed to asbestos on the job and grew fearful of developing cancer; Court holds that Plaintiff cannot recover for his fear alone, without symptoms.
Uston v. Resorts International Hotel
Chris22
A casino did not have the right to exclude a player who counted cards in blackjack, because the property was open to the public and the player was not threatening its security.
Shelley v. Kraemer
Chris22
Private covenants that are racially restrictive violate the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Fair Housing Council of San Fernando Valley v. Roommate.com
Chris22
A roommate selection website that asked for information about protected characteristics such as sex did not violate the Fair Housing Act, because choice of roommate touches on fundamental
Olwell v. Nye & Nissen
Chris22
When a tortfeasor has profited from committing the tort, the person against whom the tort was committed can recover the profits on the theory of unjust enrichment.
Producers Lumber & Supply Co. v. Olney Building Co.
Chris22
If someone goes onto someone else’s property and permanently improves it, and then subsequently destroys the improvement without permission, he is liable for the value of the improvement because he committed waste.
Edwards v. Allouez Mining Co.
Chris22
When a party's primary motive is impetus for another person's lawful business operations, he is not entitled to equitable relief for nuisance.
Wood v. Leadbitter
Chris22
A license to enter the land of another, even if paid for, is revocable.
ProCD v. Zeidenberg
Chris22
A license that is included on the shrink wrap on the outside packaging of an item, or that the buyer must click through in order to use the product, is enforceable as a contract.
Allen v. Hyatt Regency–Nashville Hotel
Chris22
When a person parks his car in a parking garage and receives a ticket for parking there, he enters into a bailment relationship with the owne
Cowen v. Pressprich
Chris22
An involuntary bailee has the same legal duties as a voluntary bailee if he exercises control over the property.
The Winkfield
Chris22
A bailee has a right in the property that is enforceable against all others except the bailor.
Pocono Springs Civic Association, Inc. v. MacKenzie
Chris22
Real property cannot be abandoned.
Eyerman v. Mercantile Trust Company
Chris22
When it would be against public policy, the court may enjoin an express condition of a will.
Illinois Central Railroad Company v. Illinois
Chris22
The lakebed of the Great Lakes belong to the state in which they are found, and such lands are held in public trust.
Williams v. Estate of Williams
Chris22
One of three daughters who has received their fathers farm in his will outlived the other two and sought to have the will construed so that she owned the whole farm after the passing of her sisters. The court held that they had had life estates.
Delfino v. Vealencis
Chris22
A partition by sale is only appropriate when it would better serve the interests of the parties and when a partition in kind is infeasible.
Charles v. Barzey
Chris22
A court must balance the intent of the testator with the necessity of resolving inconsistencies when construing a will.
Brokaw v. Fairchild
Chris22
A life tenant of a property cannot tear it down and build a new property; he must enjoy it in a manner that is consistent with the remainderman's interest in future possession.
Mountain Brow Lodge No. 82, Independent Order of Odd Fellows v. Toscano
Chris22
A gift of real property to an organization with a restriction that, unless the organization is using it, it will revert back to the family's estate, is valid.
City of Klamath Falls v. Bell
Chris22
When a gift grants fee simple title to the recipient with an indefinite condition, the gift may violate the rule against perpetuities.
Gillmor v. Gillmor
Chris22
Using property to its fullest capacity amounts to ouster.
Harms v. Sprague
Chris22
A mortgage does not destroy the unity of a title held in common by two joint tenants of a piece of property.
O'Brien v. O'Brien
Chris22
A medical license is part of the marital estate and its value should be divided between the spouses in a divorce.
Paradine v. Jane
Chris22
When a party enters into a contractual agreement, he is responsible for fulfilling the agreement regardless of whether his purpose for entering it is frustrated.
Javins v. First National Realty Corp.
Chris22
If a landlord does not comply with the obligation of habitability, the tenant is entitled to withold rent payments.
Blackett v. Olanoff
Chris22
Where the landlord leases a nearby space that interfered with the tenant's warranty of quiet enjoyment, he has constructively evicted the tenant.
Gotlieb v. Taco Bell
Chris22
A landlord is not required to accept a tenant's repudiation of a lease.
Medico-Dental Building Co. of Los Angeles v. Horton and Converse
Chris22
A lease is subject to the interpretive rules of contract law as well as landlord/tenant law under the property regime.
Gammon v. Osteopathic Hospital of Maine, Inc.
Lan
Plaintiff was very distressed after finding a severed leg in his deceased father's personal effects; Court holds that Plaintiff can recover for emotional distress alone.
Johnson v. Jamaica Hospital
Lan
Plaintiffs' baby was abducted due to hospital's negligence and returned months later; the Court holds that Plaintiffs cannot recover for their emotional distress because they were not in the zone of danger.
Stubbs v. City of Rochester
Lan
Plaintiff contracted typhoid fever after drinking Defendant city's contaminated water; Court holds that Plaintiff does not need to disprove other 8 potential causes to establish actual cause.
Cay v. Louisiana
Lan
Cay fell off a bridge with low railings and there was no evidence of foul play; Court holds that there was sufficient evidence for a jury to find the low railings to be a cause-in-fact of Cay's fall.
Sommer v. Kridel
Chris22
A landlord has the obligation to mitigate his damages after a tenant breaks the lease agreement.
Mullendore Theatres v. Growth Realty Investors Co.
Chris22
A promise to return the security deposit or else spend it to improve the property is not a covenant that runs with the land; it is merely an obligation on the original lessor.
Kendall v. Ernest Pestana
Chris22
A landlord must be reasonable in denying a sublease, even if the contract does not require it, because denial of a sublease is a restriction on alienation.
Nahrstedt v. Lakeside Village Condominium Association
Chris22
Restrictive covenants in condominium agreements will be upheld unless they violate public policy.
Summers v. Tice
Lan
Plaintiff was shot in the eye by one of two Defendants, unclear which; Court holds that both Defendants can be held liable.
Shinn v. Allen
Lan
Plaintiff injured by a drunk driver sued the friend who drank with the driver and asked him for a ride home; Court holds that friend could not be held liable for actions of the driver.
Shinn v. Allen
Lan
Plaintiff injured by a drunk driver sued the friend who drank with the driver and asked him for a ride home; Court holds that friend could not be held liable for actions of the driver.
Hymowitz v. Eli Lilly & Co.
Lan
Plaintiffs suffered injuries as a result of a drug their mothers took, but were unable to prove which drug manufacturer made the specific pill taken; Court says Plaintiffs can still recover under market share liability.
Davis v. Mann
Lan
Plaintiff left his donkey on the road and Defendant hit it while driving negligently; Court holds that Plaintiff can still recover despite being contributorily negligent.
Fritts v. McKinne
Lan
Defendant doctor whose negligence killed Plaintiff patient tried to argue that Plaintiff's drunk driving made him comparatively negligent for his death; Court holds that Defendant cannot make this argument.
Murphy v. Steeplechase Amusement Co.
Lan
Plaintiff was injured on a ride that was designed to make riders fall; Court holds that Plaintiff assumed the risk when riding and cannot recover for his injuries.
Davenport v. Cotton Hope Plantation Horizontal Property Regime
Lan
Plaintiff took the stairs in Defendant's building despite knowing they were badly lit and was injured in a fall; Court holds that Plaintiff's assumption of risk does not completely bar his recovery.
Fletcher v. Rylands
Lan
Defendant's dam ends up flooding Plaintiff's mine shafts under Defendant's property; Court holds that Defendant is strictly liable for damages resulting from him bringing something unnatural (the dam) onto his property.
Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad Co. v. American Cyanamid Co.
Lan
Plaintiff sued Defendant over spilled chemicals along the railroad; Court holds that a negligence standard, and not strict liability, should be applied.
MacPherson v. Buick Motor Co.
Lan
Defendant sold a car to a retail dealer without inspecting the wheels, and Plaintiff who purchased the car from the retail dealer was injured in an accident; Court holds Defendant owed duty to Plaintiff despite lack of privity.
Escola v. Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Fresno
Lan
Plaintiff is injured when a bottle of Coke explodes in her hand and she sues Defendant bottler; Court holds that Defendant's negligence is inferred under res ipsa loquitur.
Soule v. General Motors Corporation
Lan
Plaintiff was injured when her car floorboard crumpled after a crash; Court holds that jury should not have been instructed on the consumer expectations test because this case requires technical knowledge.
Camacho v. Honda Motors
Lan
Plaintiff was injured in a motorcycle crash and sues Defendant manufacturer for not designing the motorcycle with crash bars; Court holds that the obvious danger inherent in motorcycles does not bar Plaintiff's recovery.
Hood v. Ryobi America Corp
Lan
Plaintiff removed blade guards on a saw despite a warning not to do so and was injured when the blade detached; Court holds the warning did not have to specify the detaching blade as a potential danger.
Centocor v. Hamilton
Lan
Defendant drug manufacturer warned Plaintiff's physician of potential side effects of the drug but did not warn her; Court holds Defendant fulfilled its duty to warn under the learned intermediary rule.
Vassallo v. Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Lan
Plaintiff was injured by defective breast implants, manufactured by a company since bought by Defendant; Court holds that Defendant can only be held liable if it had actual or constructive knowledge of the risk of defects.
General Motors Corp. v. Sanchez
Lan
Plaintiff died from an incident with his truck, partly due to his own negligence, and partly due to a design defect; Court holds that Plaintiff's comparative negligence can reduce his recovery.
Seffert v. LA Transit Lines
Lan
Plaintiff received a large damages award from the jury for her economic and non-economic injuries; Court holds that the jury award was not excessive.
McDougald v. Garber
Lan
The jury awarded damages for loss of enjoyment of life and pain and suffering to Plaintiff in a coma; Court holds that both should be considered under pain and suffering, and that recovery requires an aware Plaintiff.
BMW of North America v. Gore
Lan
BMW was ordered to pay $4M in punitive damages for the fraudulent sale of a car with a cheaper paint job to Plaintiff; SCOTUS holds that the punitive damage award was so excessive as to be unconstitutional.
Campbell v. State Farm Mutual Auto Insurance Company
Lan
Jury awarded $145M in punitive damages and $1M in compensatory damages against State Farm; Court holds that the punitive damages were grossly excessive and unconstitutional.
Bethel v. New York City Transit Authority
Lan
Plaintiff is injured on Defendant's bus when his seat collapses; Court gets rid of old common carrier highest standard of care and holds that common carriers only owe a general duty of reasonable care to passengers.
In re Kinsman Transit Co.
Lan
A ship that broke from the dock ended up crashing into the city's bridge and causing flooding damage; Court holds that the ship's crew, the owner of the dock, and the city can all be held liable.
Hanks v. Powder Ridge Restaurant Corp.
Lan
Plaintiff was injured snowtubing after signing a waiver releasing Defendant facility from liability; Court holds the waiver was not enforceable because it violated public policy.
40 West 67th Street v. Pullman
Chris22
The decisions of a co-op or condominium board are subject to deference under the business judgment rule.
Kiekel v. Four Colonies Homes Association
Chris22
An HOA can only restrict property use in its Declaration. Such a restriction in the HOA's bylaws is unenforceable.
Broadway National Bank v. Adams
Chris22
A beneficiary's creditors cannot obtain attachment of the income of a trust before it is paid out, because such income is owned by the donor.
In re Rothko
Chris22
The executor of a trust violates his fiduciary duty to the beneficiaries when he enters into a contract with an organization in which he has a personal financial interest.
Wilber v. Owens
Chris22
When the express purpose of a will is impossible to carry out, the court will look to the testator's general intent in construing the will.
Timmer v. Gray
Chris22
A good faith purchaser for value who fails to inspect the property before purchase is subject to a lien to prevent unjust enrichment.
Murphy v. Financial Development Corp.
Chris22
A mortgagee owes a fiduciary duty to the mortgagor in foreclosure to obtain a fair and reasonable price.
Skendzel v. Marshall
Chris22
In a contract for the sale of land, the vendor retains the legal title to the property as security for payment, but the vendee gets equitable title to the property as soon as the contract begins.
U.S. Bank National Association v. Ibanez
Chris22
A seller that forecloses on a property must be the mortgage-holder at the time of the notice of sale and foreclosure sale. An interest in a mortgage-backed security is not sufficient.
Irons v. Smallpiece
Chris22
A verbal gift is not valid unless possession of the property is transferred from the donor to the donee.
Foster v. Reiss
Chris22
Because a gift causa mortis supersedes a will, it must strictly follow the standards of validity.
Gilbert v. McSpadden
Chris22
A delivery of deed is valid only if the grantor unequivocally expresses an intention to part with the instrument presently and unconditionally.
Kunstsammlungen zu Weimar v. Elicofon
Chris22
One who steals property or obtains possession of it through theft cannot transfer good title to a good faith purchaser.
Kotis v. Nowlin Jewelry
Chris22
If a purchaser knows that he is buying stolen goods, he cannot be considered a good faith purchaser for value.
Hauck v. Crawford
Chris22
A landowner cannot void the title of bona fide purchasers where he was negligent in signing the contract, even if he signed it due to fraudulent inducement.
Hood v. Webster
Chris22
A good faith purchaser for valuable consideration with a recorded deed has a better claim to title than a prior purchaser with an unrecorded deed; but, he has the burden of demonstrating consideration.
Mugaas v. Smith
Chris22
An adverse possessor has a better claim to title than a subsequent purchaser for value with a valid recorded deed.
Adams v. Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company
Chris22
Vibrations, noise, and dust do not constitute intrusions sufficient for recovery for trespass.
Campbell v. Seaman
Chris22
An injunction restricting one property owner's use of his land may be appropriate where that use causes irreparable damage or annoyance to his neighbor.
Boomer v. Atlantic Cement
Chris22
Permanent damages may be more appropriate than a permanent injunction to remedy nuisance where the costs of injunction would far outweigh the benefits.
Baseball Publishing Co. v. Bruton
Chris22
A contract between two parties that allowed one party the exclusive right and privilege to advertise on the building of the other party is an easement in gross, and it is not revocable.
Schwab v. Timmons
Chris22
A landowner who is landlocked without public road access cannot obtain an easement by necessity if he conveyed away his access to public roads.
Warsaw v. Chicago Metallic Ceilings
Chris22
A landowner obtains a prescriptive easement when he openly, notoriously, and continuously uses the property of another in an uninterrupted manner for more than 5 years. A landowner who encroaches on the easement is required to remove the encroachment.
Fontainebleau Hotel Corp. v. Forty-Five Twenty-Five
Chris22
A landowner can use his property in a manner that blocks his neighbor's access to freely flowing air and sunlight, because the free flow of air and sunlight is not a legal right.
Penn Bowling Recreation Center v. Hot Shoppes
Chris22
An easement-holder who had used it in an unauthorized way had not forfeited the easement altogether.
Tulk v. Moxhay
Chris22
A restrictive covenant can be enforced in equity against a subsequent purchaser who had knowledge of the covenant.
Neponsit Property Owners’ Association v. Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank
Chris22
Covenants run with land and bind subsequent purchasers if (1) they are intended to run with the land; (2) they concern/touch the land; and (3) there is privity of estate between the enforcement right of the promisee and the obligation of the promisor.
Holbrook v. Taylor
Chris22
Where a landowner tacitly or explicitly consents to use of his property that induces reasonable reliance to the licensee's detriment, he has granted an irrevocable easement by estoppel.
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.
Chris22
Zoning ordinances fall within the city's police powers, and they do not violate landowners' Fourteenth Amendment rights to liberty and property.
Kelo v. City of New London, Connecticut
Chris22
A private redevelopment plan that will economically benefit the community is a sufficient "public use" to justify eminent domain under the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment.
United States v. Miller
Chris22
A landowner will not receive an inflated value for condemned land when such inflation is caused by the very project that the land is condemned for.
Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon
Chris22
A statute that restricts landowners' rights to mine the coal beneath their property constitutes a taking of property.
Miller v. Schoene
Chris22
A state is justified in preferencing one crop over another for the purpose of promoting the general economic welfare of state citizens.
Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York
Chris22
The state was justified in restricting the use of certain historic properties classified as landmarks, and such restrictions did not constitute a taking under the Fifth Amendment.
Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp.
Chris22
When the government authorizes a permanent physical occupation of physical property, the authorization is a taking that must be fairly compensated under the Fifth Amendment.
Horne v. Dept. of Agriculture
Chris22
A government regulation that allows the federal government to confiscate a certain portion of the raisins produced in California every year constitutes a taking.
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council
Chris22
When a government regulation renders a landowner's property economically useless, it has committed a taking.
Regina v. Dudley and Stephens
Chris22
Killing someone is not justfied, even when done because of extreme hunger.
Martin v. State
Chris22
The state cannot force someone into a situation that satisfies the elements of a criminal act and then prosecute him for the criminal act.
People v. Newton
Chris22
Unconsciousness not caused by the voluntary conduct of the defendant is a defense to voluntary manslaughter.
Jones v. United States
Chris22
A legal duty to care for the deceased is a necessary element of involuntary manslaughter.
Pope v. State
Chris22
A person can only be convicted of child abuse if she had a sufficient relationship to the child such that she had an obligation to intervene to prevent abuse.
Regina v. Cunningham
Chris22
Malice requires intent or recklessness with respect to a particular harm.
Regina v. Faulkner
Chris22
A defendant cannot be held liable for all accidental consequences of an unlawful act; instead, only those consequences which were foreseeable and recklessly disregarded can form the basis of criminal liability.
State v. Hazelwood
Chris22
Due process is nto denied to a defendant who is convicted of criminal negligence under a statute that merely requires the civil negligence standard of care, because reasonable deterrence is the core principle of due process.
Santillanes v. New Mexico
Chris22
A defendant cannot be convicted of a criminal offense based on violating the standard of care for civil negligence.
United States v. Jewell
Chris22
A person can be held criminally liable for acts he did not know he was committing if his lack of knowledge was solely the result of deliberate ignorance.
U.S. v. Balint
Chris22
A statute that imposed strict liability for the sale of derivatives of coca or opium was permissible.
United States v. Dotterweich
Chris22
The legislature may impose strict vicarious liability against those convicted of public welfare criminal offenses.
Morisette v. United States
Chris22
The mere fact that a statute fails to mention a mens rea requirement does not mean that it should be read to impose strict liability.
People v. Olsen
Chris22
The legislature acts within its power when it imposes strict liability for the crime of statutory rape; so, reasonable mistake as to the age of the victim is not a defense.
Garnett v. State
Chris22
A statute that defines statutory rape as a strict liablity crime does not require the state to prove mens rea.
Staples v. United States
Chris22
Where a statute is ambiguous as to the mens rea requirement, but many innocent people would be implicated by a strict liability standard, the Court will not impute one.
United States v. X-Citement Video, Inc.
Chris22
A child pornography statute that was ambiguous as to which elements required knowledge was interpreted by the Supreme Court to require mens rea for each element.
State v. Guthrie
Chris22
Premeditated murder is a killing that takes place after the killer has considered and weighed the decision to kill.
Girouard v. State
Chris22
Words alone are not sufficient to sustain a provocation defense to murder.
Maher v. People
Chris22
The court should consider whether a reasonable person would be provoked, unless the defendant has a specific mental weakness not arising from wickedness or cruelty.
People v. Casassa
Chris22
The defense of extreme emotional disturbance requires (1) that the defendant acted in a state of extreme emotional disturbance, and (2) that such emotional state was reasonable.
United States v. Fleming
Chris22
The Fourth Circuit applied the depraved heart murder concept, finding that the difference in malice and recklessness is one of degree, not kind.
Commonwealth v. Welansky
Chris22
A nightclub owner who operated his nightclub with one entrance and no emergency exits was criminally liable for manslaughter when a fire killed 492 people trapped inside his club.
People v. Hall
Chris22
A ski instructor who decided to ski too quickly without control and technique acted with sufficient recklessness to sustain a conviction for reckless manslaughter.
State v. Williams
Chris22
A parent who does not obtain medical care for his child is criminally liable for the child's death under a Washington statute.
Commonwealth v. Malone
Chris22
Second degree murder was the proper charge against a defendant who acted with wickedness of disposition and reasonably could have anticipated the risk of harm to the victim.
People v. Stamp
Chris22
If someone dies while the defendant is committing an inherently dangerous felony, the defendant can be tried for murder.
People v. Phillips
Chris22
Grand theft by false pretenses is not an inherently dangerous crime, so it cannot serve as the predicate for felony murder.
Hines v. State
Chris22
Possession of a firearm by a convicted felon can be an inherently dangerous crime that can serve as the predicate for a felony murder charge.
People v. Burton
Chris22
A felony whose purpose is to cause bodily harm cannot serve as the predicate for felony murder.
State v. Canola
Chris22
A defendant cannot be convicted of felony murder of his co-felon who dies as the result of resistance.
People v. Chun
Chris22
Shooting at an occupied vehicle is assaultive in nature; therefore, it cannot serve as the predicate for felony murder.
Gregg v. Georgia
Chris22
The death penalty is not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment.
McClesky v. Kemp
Chris22
The courts will not consider statistical evidence in Fourteenth Amendment challenges to the state's use of the death penalty.
Roper v. Simmons
Chris22
Executing a minor violates the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments.
State v. Rusk
Chris22
Force or threat of force sufficient to sustain a rape conviction can include disallowing the victim to leave and making her afraid.
United States v. Peterson
Chris22
In order to plead self-defense, the defendant must have believed genuinely and reasonably that the force was necessary to save life or prevent serious bodily injury.
People v. Goetz
Chris22
Reasonableness is required for the self-defense justification, even if the defendant sincerely believed that the force was necessary.
State v. Kelly
Chris22
Expert witness testimony on battered woman syndrome is relevant to self-defense justification, because it illuminates the defendant's state of mind at the time of the offense.
State v. Norman
Chris22
Perfect self-defense is a complete justification that requires a reasonable belief that force was necessary to prevent imminent danger. Imminence requires a present threat and no possibility of retreat.
Commonwealth v. Sands
Chris22
A defendant who shot her abusive husband while he was in bed watching televisionw as not in imminent danger such that she was justified in killing him.
State v. Abbott
Chris22
The duty to retreat is only required when the defendant uses deadly force.
In the interest of MTS
Chris22
Having sex with someone who is asleep is forceful.
Commonwealth v. Sherry
Chris22
The defendant need not have actual knowledge that the victim does not consent in order to be convicted of rape/sexual assault.
Commonwealth v. Fischer
Chris22
A defendant's counsel is not ineffective for failing to present a mistake of fact defense in a rape case.
State v. DeLawder
Chris22
The confrontation clause requires that the defendant have the opportunity to cross-examine the witness.
People v. Ceballos
Chris22
Deadly force is not justified where there is no threat of bodily harm.
People v. Unger
Chris22
Necessity can be a defense for escape of prison.
United States v. Schoon
Chris22
The necessity defense is not available in a case of indirect civil disobedience.
Public Committee Against Torture v. State of Israel
Chris22
In cases of imminent danger of severe death or harm, the necessity doctrine protects the GSS from criminal liability for torture.
State v. Toscano
Chris22
The duress defense can be submitted to a ury even if the harm is some future harm.
M'Naghten's case
Chris22
The insanity defense is available where the defendant can prove that at the time of the crime, he suffered from a mental condition that prevented him from appreciating the wrongfulness of his acts.
Blake v. United States
Chris22
In light of science on mental illness and incapacity, a sustainability requirement is an appropriate element of insanity.
United States v. Lyons
Chris22
The Fifth Circuit rejected the volitional prong of the insanity defense, finding that it does not comport with medical knowledge.
Smallwood v. State
Chris22
A defendant can only be convicted of attempted murder if the prosecution can prove a specific intent to kill.
People v. Rizzo
Chris22
Attempt is an act so proximate and near to the crime that the crime would have been committed in all reasonable probability but for timely interference.
United States v. Jackson
Chris22
Attempt requires a substantial step toward committing a crime and specific intent to commit the crime.
United States v. Armstrong
Chris22
In order to prevail on a selective-prosecution claim, a defendant must show that similarly situated individuals of other races were not prosecuted under similar circumstances.
Hicks v. United States
Chris22
The presence of the defendant at the scene of the crime is not enough to convict him for aiding and abetting, unless his own actions indicated an intent to aid in the commission of the crime.
State v. Gladstone
Chris22
A defendant who is not connected with the person who commits the crime is not guilty of aiding and abetting the crime.
Rosemond v. United States
Chris22
Acting to advance on element of a criminal offense is sufficient to support a conviction for aiding and abetting.
Commonwealth v. Roebuck
Chris22
A defendant can be convicted of third degree murder under an accomplice theory of liability so long as it is proven that he had the requisite criminal intent required under the statute.
People v. Luparello
Chris22
An accomplice can be prosecuted for the actual crime committed, even if it goes beyond the scope of his criminal intention.
Roy v. United States
Chris22
An accomplice cannot be held liable for a crime that was not a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the conspiracy.
Wilcox v. Jeffrey
Chris22
Where the defendant provides encouragement for unlawful activity and knows it is unlawful, he aids and abets the criminal act.
State v. Tally
Chris22
Making the commission of the offense easier for the principal is material aid.
State v. Hayes
Chris22
In order to hold someone criminally liable for aiding and abetting, there must be a common criminal intent.
People v. Lauria
Chris22
A supplier may be held criminally liable for the criminal use of his services if there is evidence of an intent to further the criminal acts.
Vaden v. State
Chris22
The public authority justification available to an undercover agent acting as the principal does not impute to the accomplice.
Perry v. State
Chris22
A parent who knowingly allowed a known sex offender to sleep in his daughter's room, but did so without an express agreement to perpetrate sexual battery, could not be convicted of conspiracy to commit sexual battery.
Pinkerton v. United States
Chris22
If any member of a conspiracy commits a substantive crime in furtherance of the conspiracy, such crime is attributable to all members of the conspiracy.
State v. Bridges
Chris22
Where the criminal act was an objectively foreseeable consequence of a criminal conspiracy, the co-conspirator could be held liable even without the requisite mens rea for the substantive crime.
United States v. Alvarez
Chris22
Circumstantial evidence of agreement, inferred from the defendant's overt acts furthering the conspiracy, are sufficient to sustain a conviction.
Kotteakos v. United States
Chris22
There is not necessarily a conspiracy when one person has criminal contact with two or more other people who are not connected to one another.
Anderson v. Superior Court
Chris22
A person who entered into a conspiracy referring women to an abortion doctor can be held liable for the substantive offense of performing an illegal abortion.
United States v. Bruno
Chris22
In order to find a single conspiracy sufficient to prosecute defendants together, it is not necessary that each co-conspirator have had contact with all others.
United States v. Borelli
Chris22
The conviction of several individuals in various roles of a drug conspiracy in a joint trial was improper where the judge failed to instruct the jury on single versus multiple conspiracies.
United States v. McDermott
Chris22
Where the defendant does not agree to pass on the information to a third party, he is not guilty of conspiracy to commit insider trading.
Kier v. State
Chris22
A conviction for possession of drugs requires proof of intent to exercise control over the drugs. Circumstantial evidence will suffice if the prosecution rules out all other reasonable hypotheses.
State v. Pigford
Chris22
Circumstantial evidence can support a conviction for possession with intent to distribute where other hypotheses are not probable.
Brady v. United States
Chris22
The fact that the death penalty is a potential sentence for a particular crime is not sufficient to support a claim that the defendant was coerced into pleading guilty.
United States v. Hunte
Chris22
Evidence that someone participated in the conspiracy and had constructive possession of drugs is sufficient to support a conviction, even if there was no financial motive to the defendant.
Papachristou v. City of Jacksonville
Chris22
A vagrancy statute was void for vagueness because it did not give a person of reasonable intelligence notice that his conduct was forbidden.
Inmates of Attica Correctional Facility v. Rockerfeller
Chris22
In general, the courts will not compel prosecution.
Bordenkircher v. Hayes
Chris22
A prosecutor's credible threat to bring more serious charges if the defendant does not plead guilty to the current charges does not constitute coercion.
City of Chicago v. Morales
Chris22
A statute that criminalizes loitering by a person reasonably believed to be in a gang is unconstitutionally vague.
Duncan v. Louisiana
Chris22
A defendant is entitled to a trial by a jury of his peers for any non-petty crimes.
United States v. Dougherty
Chris22
Included in the right to effective assistance of counsel is the right to dispense of one's dis-satisfactory lawyer and represent oneself.
Wyley v. Warden, Maryland Penitentiary
Chris22
Allowing the jury to decide both the law and the facts in any given case does not deprive the defendant of due process per se.
Williams v. New York
Chris22
Consideration of a sentencing report that contains information not presented at trial does not violate a defendant's right to due process.
Ewing v. United States
Chris22
A three strikes law mandating a minimum sentence that is grossly disproportionate to the crime that triggers the sentence does not violate due process.
Graham v. Florida
Chris22
Sentencing a juvenile convicted of a non-homicidal offense to life in prison without the possibility of parole is cruel and unusual punishment.
United States v. Gementera
Chris22
Punishment by public shaming is permissible because it is reasonably related to rehabilitation.
United States v. Madoff
Chris22
A disproportionately long sentence may be appropriate where the symbolic significance of such a sentence serves retributive and deterrent ends.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Pilea
Enslaved people are not granted rights and protections of the Constitution.
Marbury v. Madison
Pilea
Affirms power of judicial review.
Calder v. Bull
Pilea
State legislature is restrained by the constitution, or fundamental law, of the state.
Cooper v. Aaron
Pilea
Affirms judicial supremacy as first hinted to by Marbury v. Madison.
Baker v. Carr
Pilea
Summarizes the textual and prudential grounds for nonjusticiable political questions.
Powell v. McCormack
Pilea
[Abrv.] Example of a question analyzed through political question doctrine, and determined to be justiciable.
Goldwater v. Carter
Pilea
[Abrv.]Treaty Abrogation is a non-justiciable political question.
Nixon v. US
Pilea
[Abrv.] The method of impeachment proceedings is a nonjusticiable political questions.
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife
Pilea
Plaintiffs here may not bring suit because they do not have standing, due to lack of injury in fact and redressability of th
Clapper v. Amnesty International USA
Pilea
Sets a high bar for injury in fact – must be concretely imminent to qualify for standing.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Pilea
The necessary and proper clause is read broadly to expand Congress' powers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Pilea
Congress may regulate all commercial activities occurring between states, BUT the completely internal commerce of a state is considered as reserved for the state itself.
Hammer v. Dagenhart
Pilea
Congress may not use its commerce power to regulate purely local matters.
Schechter Poultry Corp v. US ("Sick Chicken" Case)
Pilea
Congressional use of commerce power to regulate the hours/wages for production of goods was invalidated.
NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp.
Pilea
Congress may regulate labor relations because they have such a close and substantial relationship to interstate commerce.
US v. Darby
Pilea
Upholds prohibition of shipment of goods on basis of substandard labor conditions using the substantial effects test.
Wickard v. Filburn
Pilea
Congress uses the commerce clause to regulate a farmer growing wheat for his own consumption through the Aggregation principle.
Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. US
Pilea
Congress can regulate local activities to combat racial discrimination.
Katzenbach v. McClung
Pilea
Congress may regulate a discriminatory restaurant under the commerce clause because Congress had a rational basis to believe that discrimination would affect interstate commerce.
US v. Lopez
Pilea
Suggests judicially enforceable limits on Congress. Even under a deferential rational basis test, this gun law fails.
US v. Morrison
Pilea
Congress may not create civil remedies for gender based violence under the commerce power, because it does not constitute a regulation of "economic activity".
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius
Pilea
The individual mandate of the ACA is a valid use of Congress' taxation power, but not its commerce power.
New York v. United States
Pilea
Establishes the anti-commandeering principle: Congress may not compel states to enact a federal regulatory program.
Printz v. United States
Pilea
Anti-commandeering principle extends to preventing federal government from coercing state officials to execute federal programs.
South Dakota v. Dole
Pilea
Congress' spending power may impose conditions on receipt of federal funds, however, some limitations are established on this conditional use of the spending power.
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
Pilea
President needs authorization from Congress or the Constitution to issue an executive order. Establishes tripartite framework for analysis of President's power in Jackson's concurrence.
Dames & Moore v. Regan
Pilea
Congressional approval of an executive order is drawn from inferences (implicit authorization).
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp.
Pilea
The power to conduct foreign relations is vested exclusively in the President.
Zivotofsky v. Kerry
Pilea
President has exclusive power to recognize foreign sovereigns.
Missouri v. Holland
Pilea
Valid federal treaties trump state laws. Congress can enact laws to effectuate treaties.
Trump v. Hawaii
Pilea
Uses rational basis review to uphold executive foreign national entry ban.
Ex Parte Milligan
Pilea
Martial law can never exist if the courts are open and functional.
Ex Parte Quirin
Pilea
Unlawful combatants, as opposed to lawful combatants (soldiers in uniform) may be placed in front of a military tribunal.
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
Pilea
An enemy combatant may be indefinitely detained under the AUMF so long as they receive "some" due process to determine if they were an enemy combatant.
Boumediene v. Bush
Pilea
§7 of the Military Commissions Act of 2006 allowing for a suspension of the writ of habeas corpus is unconstitutional.
Morrison v. Olson
Pilea
Functional necessity argument wins; Good cause does not impermissibly burden the President’s power to supervise/control independent counsel
United States v. Nixon
Pilea
President has some privilege of confidentiality, but it must be weighed against the fair administration of criminal justice.
Clinton v. Jones
Pilea
Immunity from private actions for Prez extends to a sphere of protected action related closely to the immunity’s justifying purpose (i.e., official duties).
Barron v. Baltimore
Pilea
Bill of Rights restricted only to the National Government; SCOTUS refuses to bind states by the Bill of Rights
Slaughter-House Cases
Pilea
Privileges/immunities clause of the Constitution simply informs state governments they must apply their laws equally to all US citizens who come within their jurisdiction.
Saenz v. Roe
Pilea
Court strikes a law down as unconstitutional on the basis of privileges/immunities clause.
Adamson v. California
Pilea
Applies Cardozo’s Palko test and says the law against self-incrimination (5A) fails the incorporation test under the 14A
District of Columbia v. Heller
Pilea
The second amendment applies as a right for individuals against the federal government.
District of Columbia v. Heller
Pilea
Established that the Second Amendment guarantees the individual right to possess and carry weapons.
McDonald v. City of Chicago
Pilea
The Second Amendment is a fundamental right incorporated against the states.
Lochner v. New York
Pilea
Court overturns state legislature (NY max hours min wages) as unconstitutional use of power. Establishes right to contract (as part of right to purchase or sell labor), not to be interfered with by the state.
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
Pilea
Minimum wage law for women is constitutional.
US v. Carolene Products
Pilea
Introduced minimum rational basis standard to govern due process review of economic legislation
Williamson v. Lee Optical
Pilea
Employs minimum rationality review to uphold law preventing opticians from fitting glass lenses without prescriptive authority.
Griswold v. Connecticut
Pilea
Contraception use by married couples is protected under the constitutional right to privacy.
Roe v. Wade
Pilea
Right of privacy encompasses women’s right to an abortion.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Pilea
Reaffirms Roe’s essential holding but moves to undue burden/substantial obstacle framework pre-viability
Gonzales v. Carhart
Pilea
Upheld nationwide ban on intact D+X abortion.
Whole Women's Health v. Hellerstedt
Pilea
Introduces balancing test of burden of law vs. benefit to women in upholding abortion laws.
Michael H. v. Gerald D.
Pilea
Tradition does not confer the right of a genetic father to have a relationship with the child.
Bowers v. Hardwick
Pilea
No right to homosexual sodomy.
Romer v. Evans
Pilea
Court uses rational basis review to invalidate denial of equal protection to gay people under CO law.
Lawrence v. Texas
Pilea
Texas homosexual sodomy law is unconstitutional. Anything adult, consensual, and private is acceptable.
US v. Windsor
Pilea
Invalidates DOMA (federal law defining marriage and spouse as solely heterosexual)
Obergefell v. Hodges
Pilea
Marriage is a fundamental right, LGBTQ people cannot be denied that right.
Strauder v. West Virginia
Pilea
Struck law excluding Black people from juries under the 14th Amendment.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Pilea
Upholds separate but equal.
Korematsu v. US
Pilea
Classification imposing race-based disadvantage survived strict scrutiny
Brown v. Board of Education (Brown I)
Pilea
Segregation of public schools on the basis of race is unconstitutional.
Bolling v. Sharpe347 U.S. 497 (1954)
Pilea
Racial segregation of public schools in DC is unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education (Brown II)
Pilea
Integration of segregated public schools must proceed with "all deliberate speed"
Loving v. Virginia
Pilea
Miscegenation laws unconstitutionally violate equal protection.
Washington v. Davis
Pilea
A test with a racially discriminatory impact of admission into the police force does not trigger strict scrutiny, and is not unconstitutional.
Regents of UC v. Bakke
Pilea
Race-based quota in public school admissions is unconstitutional violation of equal protection.
Richmond v. Croson
Pilea
Declared 14th Amendment required strict scrutiny for all race-based action by state and local governments.
Adarand Constructors v. Peña
Pilea
Race classifications, whether beneficial or burdensome, must be evaluated under strict scrutiny.
Grutter v. Bollinger
Pilea
Reaffirmed Bakke: Race-plus school admissions schemes are not prohibited by equal protection.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Pilea
Racial balancing/points system is an impermissible use of affirmative action.
Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin
Pilea
Top 10% plan is a valid use of affirmative action.
Parents Involved v. Seattle School District
Pilea
Elementary school districts may not use affirmative action.
Bradwell v. State
Pilea
Women may constitutionally be excluded from admission to the bar.
Frontiero v. Richardson
Pilea
Gender classifications are inherently suspect.
Craig v. Boren
Pilea
Establishes intermediate scrutiny for gender classifications.
US v. Virginia
Pilea
VMI's policy of excluding women from admissions fails the intermediate scrutiny test.
Michael M. v. Superior Court
Pilea
Biological gender differences may allow an exception from application of intermediate scrutiny.
Personnel Administrator of Mass v. Feeney
Pilea
Evidence of a disparate impact is not enough to prove gender discrimination.
Reynolds v. Sims
Pilea
Affirms one person, one vote.
Shaw v. Reno
Pilea
Racial gerrymandering must be evaluated with strict scrutiny.
Shelley v. Kraemer
Pilea
Judicial enforcement is a state action that triggers the 14th amendment.
Asahi Metal Indus. Co. v. Superior Court of Cal.
BirdLawyer
Sales in the stream of commerce do not establish personal jurisdiction unless a company intentionally directed sales to the forum state market.
Burger King Corp. v. Rudzewicz
BirdLawyer
A party need not be physically present in the forum state for personal jurisdiction to arise
Carnival Cruise Lines v. Shute
BirdLawyer
Unnegotiated forum selection clauses are enforceable to create specific personal jurisdiction.
Hanson v. Denckla
BirdLawyer
A forum state does not have personal jurisdiction over nonresidents just because the owner of the subject property lives there or conducted some business there.
McGee v. International Life Insurance Co.
BirdLawyer
A court has specific personal jurisdiction over a contract dispute if the contract has a substantial connection to the forum state.

General

General chat about the legal profession.
main_chatroom
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Help us make LSD better!
Tell us what's important to you
BigManRed
18:34
I'm not a fan of Why X essays as a principle honestly
18:40
Me neither
19:01
I thought they were pretty tedious to write, but once you have one good one you can kind of use that as a template for all the others
Is there any chance we see some waves Monday?
For anyone in the GULC wave on Friday, do you mind sharing when you interviewed?
20:28
application status date change at penn after going complete over two and a half weeks ago
20:28
anyone think this could mean anything
ararara
20:41
I think it means you should get off this sub and go have some fun!
ararara
20:41
Nice stats by the way! Have a good Saturday!
21:16
penn state or upenn?
It is Saturday 9pm est if you are on this chat you probable are good enough to get into le school
21:27
lmaoo
21:39
Do any schools ever do weekend waves? Just wondering why tf I'm on this site today.
Giants84
21:45
Very rarely it seems
NCMNCM
21:56
I got a full ride north eastern scholarship . Did everyone get that?
22:19
why did my upenn status on here just change to interview invite?? lol
22:33
They want to interview you
AllCASNoWaves
22:38
i dont think penn does interviews
22:43
ok i figured it out and it was totally something i did :( fingers crossed for the future tho
22:44
Date disappeared on GULC good sign or horrific sign?
23:24
Penn does interviews. Rarely
23:25
Weekend/end of week date disappearance on GULC is more likely to be good than bad. Date disapperance Wed -> E Wave
23:50
What's en E wave?
want2belawyer
0:00
( •̀ᴗ•́ )و ̑̑ G I V E 😈 E 😈 W A V E ( •̀ᴗ•́ )و ̑̑
WarmDiscreetCheese
0:39
༼つ ◕_◕༽つ G I V E⭐A⭐W A V E ༼つ ◕_◕༽つ
WarmDiscreetCheese
0:39
@KidNamedIRAC: I have so much to tell you someday, I hope I can remember it all
🤣🤣 Ill redownload discord
WarmDiscreetCheese
1:39
@KidNamedIRAC: so much has happened you will scarcely believe your eyes
Oh dear lord
WarmDiscreetCheese
1:41
I KNOW